Fedderholdt, K. (2001). “An Email Exchange Project between Non-Native Speakers of English.” ELT Journal 55(3): 273-80.
Describes a recent email writing project between nonnative speakers of English. The project was carried out by a group of Japanese university students, and a group of Danish for university entrance examinations. Explains the reasons for choosing to use email in writing classes and why nonnative speakers were chosen. (Author/VWL)

Liaw, M.-L. and R. J. Johnson (2001). “E-Mail Writing as a Cross-Cultural Learning Experience.” System 29(2): 235-51.
Examines the cultural dimension involved in the e-mail correspondence between university English-as-a-foreign-language students in Taiwan and pre-service bilingual d-Language teachers in the United States. E-mail entries and end-of-project reports were analyzed to yield insights into the cross-cultural information transmitted and effects of ns and values on communication effectiveness. (Author/VWL)

Lister, B. and T. Smith (2001). “Learning Latin by Electronic Media: Edging into the Future.” CALICO Journal 18(2): 235-48.
Examines the decline in Latin provision in English state schools before discussing practical, technical, and pedagogical issues arising from a small-scale, one-year project in which ran Latin classes without Latin specialists but with the support of Web-based electronic resources and e-mail tutors. (Author/VWL)

Todd, R. W. (2001). “Induction from Self-Selected Concordances and Self-Correction.” System 29(1): 91-102.
Investigates three growing areas in language teaching: induction, the use of concordances, and self-correction. For a class of Thai university students, lexical items causing writing tified. Students made concordances of the lexical items from the Internet and than induced patters from the concordance to apply in self correction of their errors. (Author/VWL)

Weber, J.-J. (2001). “A Concordance- and Genre-Informed Approach to ESP Essay Writing.” ELT Journal 55(1): 14-20.
Advocates a concordance- and genre-based approach to academic essay writing for non-native students. Describes a project that aimed to teach undergraduate law students to write formal udents identified structural characteristics and used concordances to explore possible correlations between the generic structures and particular lexical items. (Author/VWL)

(2000). ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning). Taiwan: 155.
This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in ational Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and others); (2) "A New Method for of Kanji Using Mnemonics and Software" (Chris Houser and others); (3) "A Study of Using Web Articles To Support College English Students' Ideas in Writing" (Hsien-Chin Liou and ) "A Web-Based Model of Learning Java" (Chan Wai Nelson and Andy Tsang); (5) "AWETS: An Automatic Web-Based English Testing System" (Zhao-Ming Gao); (6) "CALL with a Web-Based stem in Cooperative Learning Environments" (Miwha Lee); (7) "CoCoAJ: Supporting Online Correction of Hypermedia Documents for CALL" (Hiroaki Ogata and others); (8) "Computer-Mediated g" (Shu Ching Yang); (9) "Designing for Interactivity" (Johanna Klassen and others); (10) "Developing a Web Concordancer for English as Foreign Language Learners" (Howard Hao-Jan elopment and Evaluation of a CALL System for Supporting the Writing of Technical Japanese Texts on the WWW" (Jie Chi Yang and Kanji Akahori); (12) "Development of Japanese-English, Conversation System with Voice Reading Function and Machine Translation" (Yumemi Matsuzaki and Kanji Akahori); (13) "Development of the ELT in Taiwan Web Site for English Learning sien-Chin Liou); (14) "Integrating Web-Based Materials into Course Design" (Lilly Lee Chen); (15) "Agents in a WWW System for Academic English Teaching" (Alexandra Cristea and Toshio Online ESL Learning: An Authentic Contact" (Yu-Chih Doris Shih and Lauren Cifuentes); (17) "Schema Theory-Based Instructional Design of Asynchronous Web-Based Language Courses" (C. 18) "The Design of a Synchronous Computer Aided English Writing Environment for the Internet" (Chin-Hwa Kuo and others); (19) "The Development of a Multimedia Program for Teachers To ers into the English Curriculum" (Ya-Fung Chang); (20) "The Effectiveness of Integrating Adaptive Computer Device and Stimulus Fading Strategy on Word-Recognition for Students with Retardation" (Ming-Chung Chen and others); (21) "Using Electronic Bulletin Board as a Virtual Community To Aid College English Learning" (Yu-Chuan Cheng and Hsien-Chin Liou); and (22) Language Learning System in the Web (David Lo and others). (MES)

Biesenbach-Lucas, S. and D. Weasenforth (2000). Could We Talk? Pragmatic Variations in Student-Professor Negotiations. U.S.; District of Columbia: 17.
This study focuses on electronic office hour consultations and investigates the presence and organization of pragmatic elements associated with negotiating the completion and sework in the e-mail messages of 28 American and international students to an American professor. Findings indicate a lack of negotiation skills in the international students' ght give them a disadvantage in completing coursework successfully. Specific research questions include the following: "What features of negotiation distinguish native speakers (NS) akers (NNS)?" "What determines more efficient negotiation in online conferences between students and professors?" Six tables, five bar charts, and 49 references are included.

Bowman, I., B. A. Boyle, et al. (2000). “Connecting Teachers across Continents through On-Line Reflection and Sharing.” TESOL Journal 9(3): 15-18.
An international group of teachers discusses the collaborative development and benefits of an on-line mentoring exchange. Sample e-mail questions and responses are included.

Carey, S. and E. Crittenden (2000). Using Technology To Foster Authentic Communication for Second Language Students. Canada; British Columbia: 16.
Higher literacy needs and global communication technologies such as the Internet require that students worldwide develop academic level mastery of international languages. However, niversity second language programs are frequently able to help students achieve mastery of the basic interpersonal communications skill level of a language, few university ograms produce a high level of mastery of the cognitive-academic language processing level. Preliminary studies using WebCT Internet technology have shown how student-initiated language communication may be used to supplement more traditional approaches, and, in particular, the effectiveness of university-level immersion English as a Second Language (ESL) tudents learn academic course content through ESL. In these studies, students actively negotiated the meaning of extensive resources and readings in a second language on ronic bulletin boards whenever they were interested. This student-centered approach appears promising, based on results from a detailed discourse analysis of the students' the bulletin boards, as well as from reading comprehension and writing production tests. In addition, extensive formative and summative interviews of the students' attitudes towards sing course content on the electronic bulletin boards for second-language acquisition yielded positive results. Ongoing research with real-audio and visual modalities is promising. ences.) (KC)

Johnson, E. M. and J. W. Brine (2000). “Design and Development of CALL Courses in Japan.” CALICO Journal 17(2): 251-68.
Discusses implementation of computer-mediated-communication (CMC) and the language computing skills students need to acquire for cross-cultural e-mail exchanges. CMC syllabus design e English-as-a-foreign-language university context and within a second language acquisition research framework is also discussed. (Author/VWL)

Kataoka, K. (2000). Computers for English Language Learning in Japanese Schools. Japan: 28.
This paper suggests that computer assisted language learning (CALL) can and should be used in language education in Japan in more effective ways. It suggests practical ideas for use of computers into English language instruction in Japan. Japanese teachers of English have many concerns about the use and efficacy of computers in the classroom. This paper ncerns by making the following points: (1) the use of computers can offer more authentic examples of the English language in use (newspapers, broadcast media) and opportunities for ation (e-mail), both of which can facilitate language learning; (2) using CALL, learners can proceed at their own pace and take more risks; (3) using CALL, teachers can address the styles of their students through multimedia with pictures, sound, movies, and text offering several different ways to deal with the same material to suit various learning styles; uters can be tools for communication in which learners can engage in interaction using the target language. The usefulness of computers is investigated in specific ways, focusing on listening, speaking, and integrated skills. In each section, specific activities are suggested and methodological issues are reviewed. Worksheets are included. (Contains 50 or/KFT)

LeLoup, J. W. and R. Ponterio (2000). Enhancing Authentic Language Learning Experiences through Internet Technology. ERIC Digest. U.S.; District of Columbia, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC.: 4.
Foreign language teachers are continually searching for better ways of accessing authentic materials and providing experiences that will improve their students' knowledge and et has transformed communication around the world and can play a major role in the foreign language classroom. This digest illustrates how Internet software can enhance the ce. In addition to the original Internet applications, like FTP (file transfer protocol) for moving files between machines and Telnet for logging into distant computers, the wide and media (text, image, sound, video, multimedia) supported by the current crop of Internet programs makes them powerful additions to the foreign language teacher's repertoire. A applications are highlighted that can be used to enrich the foreign language classroom. (VWL)

Li, Y. (2000). “Linguistic Characteristics of ESL Writing in Task-based E-mail Activities.” System 28(2): 229-45.
Investigated the efficacy of integrating task-based e-mail activities into a process-oriented English-as-Second-Language (ESL) writing class. Particular focus was on the linguistic 132 pieces of e-mail writing by ESL students in tasks that differed in terms of purpose, audience interaction, and task structure. Computerized text analysis was used to ensure cy. (Author/VWL)

Sun, Y.-C. (2000). Using On-line Corpus To Facilitate Language Learning. Taiwan: 13.
The potential for on-line corpus in language teaching and learning has been the focus of attention on the part of teachers and researchers for some time now. The purpose of this study an Internet-based concordance approach to language learning and to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively Taiwanese English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students' attitudes ning tool. A 3-week, on-line corpus lesson was designed and implemented with a sample of 37 college students at a Taiwanese university. A questionnaire survey was then administered to ent's feedback on the Web-based concordance. The results of the study indicate that students in the study tended to have positive attitudes toward the use of the Internet in hallenges and possibilities for integrating Web-based material into the EFL classroom are also discussed. Images of the Web-based material are captured in images of a computer screen ese version of Microsoft Explorer with EFL material on display. Several tables display quantitative, statistical data. It is concluded that the Internet simply offers too much ul and authentic spoken English for any EFL teacher to ignore. (Author/KFT)

Appel, M. C. (1999). Tandem Language Learning by E-Mail: Some Basic Principles and a Case Study. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 54. Ireland, Trinity Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Centre for Language and Communication Studies.: 66.
A study investigated the effectiveness of tandem second language learning using electronic mail (e-mail). Tandem language learning refers to a partnership between two learners, each 's native language. The underlying principles of reciprocity and learner autonomy are explored, use of asynchronous communication between individuals for language learning is ory on communicative language learning and the role of writing in language learning is examined, and the study is presented. Subjects were seven dyads of native English- and native dults of varied second-language proficiency levels, located in Ireland, Denmark, and Spain. Data were drawn from analysis of e-mail messages and a survey of participants. Analysis of language, type of language used, nature of cultural exchange, style and quality of peer feedback, development of language usage awareness, communication strategies, and students' udes. Conclusions and areas for further research are discussed. Contains 53 references. (MSE)

Barfield, A. (1999). JALT98 Proceedings. The Proceedings of the JALT Annual International Conference on Language Teaching/Learning & Educational Materials Expo. Focus on the Classroom: Interpretations ama, Japan, November 20-23, 1998). Japan, Japan Association for Language Teaching Tokyo.: 275.
This volume includes papers presented at the 1998 Japan Association for Language Teaching Conference. Section 1, "Voices of Experience," includes: "Towards More Use of English in dori Iwano); "Paperless Portfolios" (Tim Stewart); "Textbook Creation in Reverse Order for Chinese" (Chou Jine Jing); "Career Exploitation Activities for EFL Learners" (Kristin s Up: Drama in the ESL Classroom" (James Welker); "Managing a Successful E-mail Exchange" (Katsumi Ito and Dorothy Zemach); "Preparing for the Possibilities of DVD: Exploiting mercials" (Tim Knowles); "Theme Music Presentation" (Dale Haskell); "Outside Taping for Fluency" (David Kluge and Matthew A. Taylor); "Content and Creation: Student-Generated org and Richard Humphries); "Preparing Students for the Electronic World" (Steve Witt); "Activities for the Independent Learner" (Steve Petrucione and Stephan Ryan); and "Learner se Classrooms: An Exchange of Views" (Leni Dam, David Little, Haruko Katsura, and Richard Smith). Section 2, "Voices of Observation," includes: "Entrapped by Understanding: The Use age" (Hannah Pillay); "Diagnostic Analysis of Motivational Factors in ESL" (Naoyuki Naganum); "In-Service Training with Japanese Teachers" (Judith Lamie); "Applications of Community in Japan" (Tim Greer); "Total Quality Management in the Classroom" (Giles Parker); "Promoting English Use in the EFL Classroom" (Andrew MacNeill, James M. Perren, and Kevin rse-Oriented Pronunciation Activities" (Don Hinkelman and Jerald Halvorsen); "Conversation Teaching Meets Discourse Analysis" (Dominic Cheetham); "Are Japanese Weak at Grammar, i); "Gadgets and Gizmos: Gimmicks or Godsends?" (Chris Pitts and Robert Weschler); "Classroom Activity: Learning Strategies Report" (Fumie Kato); and "Designing and Using Tasks To nguage Development" (Jane Willis). Section 3, "Voices of Interpretation," includes "Autonomy in Foreign Language Learning: From Classroom Practice to Generalizable Theory" (Leni Dam "Task Ideas for Junior and Senior High" (Daina Plitkins-Denning); "Looking at Real-World Tasks: Comparing Task-Based and Skill-Based Classroom Instruction" (Peter Robinson, Gregory er Whittle); "The Language Classroom on a Complex Systems Matrix" (Duane Kindt, Naoki Kumai, Paul Lewis, Matthew A. Taylor, and Michael Cholewinski); "Phonological Awareness in EFL n" (Brett Reynolds); "Japanese Students Academic Literacy in English" (Mayumi Fujioka); "Empowerment and Unionization: Reason, Application and Effect" (Michael Fox, Bill Holden, John McLaughlin); "The Function of Logical Models in Scientific Writing" (Atsuko Yamazaki); "Translating Questionnaires from English into Japanese: Is It Valid?" (Dale Griffee); the STEP Test" (Laura MacGregor). Section 4, "Voices of Experimentation," includes: "Practicing Action Research" (Lois Scott-Conley, Neil Cowie, Janina Tubby, Richard Hodge, and ); "Creativity in High School Oral Communication B Classes" (Renee Gauthier Sawazaki); "Questioning Creativity: The CUE Forum on Higher Education" (Jack Kimball, David McMurray, and eacher Beliefs and Teacher Development" (Kazuyoshi Sato and Tim Murphy); "Global Education and Language Teacher Training" (Kip Cates, James Kahny, Daniel Kirk, and Lynda-ann sh Language Needs Analysis for EST Students" (Robyn Najar, Guy Kellog, Scott Rogstad, Larraine Sakka, and John Thurman); "CALL: Classroom Interactions" (David Brooks, Joseph Dias, aul Daniels, and James Wada); "Developing a Self-Access Center" (John E. Ingulsrud, Kate Allen, Miriam Black, Andrew Schaffer, and Patrick Benke); "East Meets West: Approaches to (Jill Robbins); "Measuring Writing Apprehension in Japan" (Steve Cornwell and Sandra Mackay); "The 3D Effect: Combining Course and Self-Assessment" (Alan MacKenzie and Nanci unication, Context, and Constraint: Working through the Riddles" (Mark A. Clarke). (SM)

Cobb, T. (1999). “Breadth and Depth of Lexical Acquisition with Hands-on Concordancing.” Computer Assisted Language Learning 12(4): 345-60.
Examined how Omani college students studying English for Academic Purposes used concordance and database software to create their own dictionaries of words to learn. A control group and dictionary. The experimental method combined the benefits of list coverage with some of the benefits of lexical acquisition through natural reading (e.g., lasting and d knowledge). (SM)

Egbert, J. (1999). CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Inc. Alexandria VA.: 519.
Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and on via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a Computer-Enhanced Language Classroom" y Egbert); "Theory and Research: Audience, Language Use, and Language Learning" (Bill Johnston); "Classroom Practice: An Introduction to E-Mail and World Wide Web Projects" (Susan Practice: Authentic Audience on the Internet" (Leslie Opp-Beckman); "Theory and Research: Investigation of 'Authentic' Language Learning Tasks" (Carol A. Chapelle); "Classroom ative Skill-Building Tasks in CALL Environments" (Deborah Healey); "Classroom Practice: Content-Area Tasks in CALL Environments" (Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "CALL Issues: cts of Software Evaluation" (Claire Bradin); "Theory and Research: Input, Interaction, and CALL" (Lloyd Holliday); "Classroom Practice: Using Multimedia for Input and Interaction in (Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "CALL Issues: Resources for CALL" (Jim Buell); "Theory and Research: New Emphases of Assessment in the Language Learning Classroom" (Chin-chi Chao); e: Practical Assessments in the CALL Classroom" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Setting Policy for the Evaluation of the CALL Environment" (Ana Bishop); "Theory and Research: Learning , and the CALL Classroom" (Keng-Soon Soo); "Classroom Practice: Enhancing and Extending Learning Styles Through Computers" (Karen Yeok-Hwa Ngeow); "CALL Issues: Multicultural a CALL Environment" (Ana Bishop); "Theory and Research: Classroom Atmosphere" (Bill Johnston); "Classroom Practice: MOO, WOO, and More--Language Learning in Virtual Environments" CALL Issues: Introducing Students to Computers" (Sheryl Beller-Kenner); "Theory and Research: Autonomy and Language Learning" (Deborah Healey); "Classroom Practice: Autonomy Through " (Robert Wachtman); "CALL Issues: Language Learning Over Distance" (Ruth Vilmi); CALL Issues: Designing CALL Software" (Elizabeth Boling, Keng-Soon Soo); and "20 Minutes into the kill). (MSE)

Holliday, L. (1999). “Challenging Questions about E-mail for Language Learning.” ESL Magazine 2(2): 14-15.
Discusses the advantages and challenges of using e-mail in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learning, focusing on synchronous versus asynchronous computer-mediated communication; h is like; the advantages of computer-mediated communication; and how to make communication available to ESL learners. (SM)

Inoue, Y. (1999). Educational Technology for Second Language Acquisition: A Review of Research. U.S.; Guam: 44.
A review of literature on technology and second language (L2) instruction focused on the use of seven different technologies: television/videotapes/tape recordings; hand computers; ing; electronic mail (e-mail); multimedia and hypermedia; computer-assisted language learning; and machine translation. A secondary purpose of the review was to integrate the g each technology into a holistic framework. Seventeen articles reported here were found to provide a cross-section of technological tools applied to L2 learning. The findings of analyzed, with attention to both current realities and future promise, in three areas: summary of the major contributions of each technology to L2 learning; major issues or o implementation; and research methods used in the studies. Future research is proposed. In addition, the Internet and emerging technologies are considered briefly. Contains 50 r/MSE)

Jiang, H. (1999). Estimation of Score Distributions for TOEFL Concordance Tables. U.S.; New Jersey: 19.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used in establishing the concordance tables between the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), paper and pencil (P&P), ed testing (CBT) sections and total reported score scales. Listening, reading, and composite structure and essay scores plus a total score are reported in the CBT on scales that are ith the P&P scales. The concordance study was conducted to make it possible to equate the CBT test to the P&P test. Examinees (n=8,387) took the CBT soon after their P&P tests. oth were used to estimate the conditional distributions of the CBT section scores and the observed Essay scores, given the P&P scores. Projected population distributions were then CBT scores and observed Essay scores. Given reference forms for the CBT, the CBT and Essay score distributions were projected to reference-test observed score distributions that then sis for concordance functions. Concordance tables were successfully established between the CBT and the P&P reported score scales for TOEFL. It might be argued that the researchers the study group alone to establish the concordance relationships. However, because of the self-selection of the examinees participating in the study, their P&P score distributions ferent from those of the population, and it was determined that more sophisticated methods needed to be employed. (Author/SLD)

Little, D., E. Ushioda, et al. (1999). Evaluating Tandem Language Learning by E-Mail: Report on a Bilateral Project. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 55. Ireland, Trinity Coll. Dublin (Ireland). Centre for Language and Communication Studies.: 58.
The report details the Irish portion of an experiment in tandem language learning by electronic mail (e-mail). The partners were Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland) and Ruhr (Germany), funded by the European Union within the International E-Mail Tandem Network as part of a two-year project. Tandem language learning is a form of open learning in which th different native languages work together to learn each other's language, in this case, English and German; success depends on adherence to the principles of reciprocity and The report describes the network and the principles of tandem language learning by e-mail, the organization of this part of the study, including pedagogical design and e process of affective and linguistic data collection, and data analysis. The linguistic data analysis focused on bilingual skills, language register, discourse fillers, cit coordination between partners, error correction and generalizations made, thematic content, control and critical detachment, use of metalanguage, and accuracy of corrections. uture work in this area are discussed briefly. Contains 10 references. (MSE)

Miyao, M. (1999). Error Analysis To Understand Your Students Better. Japan: 20.
This paper describes one college-level English-as-a-Second-Language teacher's use of error analysis in an effort to understand students' problems with reading comprehension and rch was undertaken in a Japanese junior college. Three studies are presented. In the first, 59 students in a general English course listed sentences they found difficult in a they were prevented from understanding them. In the second, 85 students in an English word processing course read authentic materials (e.g., newspapers, World Wide Web pages) and ilar manner, the sentences they found difficult to understand. In the third study, electronic mail messages to the teacher from the same group of 85 students were analyzed for ories of error were identified: syntactic errors in constructions that are different in Japanese and English; syntactic errors in constructions due to failure in sentence l errors occurring mostly with polysemy; lexical errors in interpreting word classes; lexical errors involving misinterpretation within a word class; lexical errors involving tanding; lexical errors caused by formal similarity of words; unknown common/colloquial expressions in English; and errors in the text. Comprehension and productive errors are 9 references. (MSE)

Morrison, B. (1999). Information Technology & Multimedia in English Language Teaching. Selected Papers from the ITMELT '99 Conference (Hong Kong, November 6-7, 1999). Hong Kong, Hong Kong Univ. English Language Centre.: 229.
This edited volume of conference papers includes the following: "The Mystery Photo Album: Defining a CALL Paradigm" (Ken Keobke); "Lexicon-Driven Learning on the Internet: A Design orld Wide Web 'Virtual Language Learning Classroom'" (Chris Greaves); "Giving Students Something To Do with Concordance Output" (Tom Cobb); "Using a Corpus of Student Report Writing Write a Better Report" (Linda Lin); "Encouraging Creative Writing Through IT" (Grace Pow); "Multimedia Movies" (David Gardner); "CALL for Oral Skills in English: The Development, nd Operation of the Computer Assisted Voice Mail Oral Practice System at the Open University of Hong Kong" (Anita Poon, K. C. Tang, and Thomas Tang); "Putting Individual Writing " (Geoff Millar); "An EAP Module Via the Merlin Internet Learning Environment" (David Oakey); "Living Lessons for University Learners of English" (Gino Yu); "Guidelines for Evaluating sources on the World Wide Web" (Hao-Jan Howard Chen); "Evaluation of an On-Line Rater Training and Monitoring System" (Jan Hamilton, Sue Reddel). (KFT)

Rosenthal, M. (1999). ESL Magazine[TM]. U.S.; Maryland: 193.
This document contains all six issues of the journal for 1999. Article titles include the following: "A Tribute to ESL Pioneers"; "Current Perspectives on Improving Aural ESOL '99 Preview"; "South Africa: A Place for English Teaching Pioneers"; "Challenging Questions About E-Mail for Language Learning"; "The Challenges of Community-Based Literacy and nglish Takes Root in Vietnam"; "ESL Writing: Principles for Teaching Young Writers"; "The Importance of Associations for ESL Professionals"; "Migrants Achieve Academic Success: The ation Program"; "Japanese Students in the U.S.: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges"; "The U.S. Kosovar Refugee Problem: Operation Provide Refuge"; "Rules and Reality: Prescriptive ammar"; "Learning English: A Prescription for Health and Safety"; "Multiple Intelligences: Teaching the Whole Student"; "Voice of America's Special English 40th Anniversary; s for Higher Education"; "Teaching Brazilian Students"; "USIA 1953-1999: Telling America's Story to the World"; "ESL/EFL Book Publishing: A World of Opportunity"; "Resources for nts Who Are Deaf"; "Trends in English Language Education in China. Each issue also includes regular features such as "Editor's Note"; "Letters to the Editor"; "News Briefs"; ar"; "Reviews"; and "Catalogue Showcase." (KFT)

Salter, R. T. (1999). Bolinger, Context, and Frames: Towards a New Dictionary for Learners of English for Business. Japan: 32.
A theory is advanced for constructing an English dictionary for learners of English as a second or foreign language primarily for business purposes. The approach attempts to uch of the natural context of this language use as possible. While the general cognitive frame for the dictionary would be business, it would represent various sub-fields by using em. Concordances that associated terms with experiential contexts would be used. Selection of headwords is to be based on word frequency, collocation, and co-text and to include as entries. Inclusion of contextual information in the entry is considered crucial. Emphasis would be on the grammar of phrases rather than sentence-level grammar, and phonetic ot to be included because it is so variable in world Englishes. Details of corpora, collocation (downward and upward), use of concordance, and use of the dictionary are discussed, fered. Additional collocation data are appended. Contains 23 references. (MSE)

Schmitt, L. M. and K. T. Christianson (1999). Implementation of a UNIX-Based Network Management System for English Instruction. Japan: 49.
Pedagogical features and implementation of a UNIX-based management system (UNIEM) designed to support the instructor in teaching English as a second language using a network of escribed. The application discussed here is for teaching English composition to students at the University of Aizu (Japan). UNIEM is constructed to assist the computer novice in ng out assignments using electronic mail (e-mail) on pre-set dates; reminders of missing homework when necessary; sorting of homework submitted using e-mail; enforcing submission ired homework length; partial evaluation of homework, particularly regarding mechanical mistakes such as spelling; distribution of evaluation results to students; reformatting of r correction purposes; use of global or specialized vocabulary; identification and collection of authentic, interesting, or critical examples of grammar patterns for presentation in of statistical information; and graphic display of data. Implementation of these tools and potential for customization, possibly in connection with a specific research objective, rogram decomposition principle is also presented. (MSE)

(1998). The CATESOL Journal, Volume 10 Number 1. U.S.; California, California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.: 158.
Articles in this issue of the professional journal of California Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (CATESOL) include: "A High School/University E-mail Partnership Wardi, Ann Johns); "Asian International Students' Preferences for Learning in American Universities" (Jose Galvan, Yoshifumi Fukada); "Mishearings of Content Words by ESL Learners" Vietnamese High School Graduates: What Are Their Needs and Expectations?" (Van Dees, Melissa McDonald); "Results of the 1997 CATESOL College/University Survey" (Janet Eyring); "A rience with English Language Teaching in Tunisia: The Land of Mosaics" (John Battenburg); "Learning Environments for Adult Learners: Implications for Teacher Development" (Jim ng Grammar: What Do Employers at the Post-Secondary Level Expect?" Dorothy Messerschmitt); and "The Web of Classroom Exchanges" (Stephanie Vandrick, Dorothy Messerschmitt). Book ncluded. (MSE)

Backer, J. (1998). “Computers, the Internet and Student Writing.” English Teachers' Journal (Israel) 52: 30-32.
Describes how many Israeli English-as-a-Second-Language students use cyber-English to chat with peers worldwide via the Internet, suggesting that this is a useful addition to on because it is a motivating and powerful means of communication, and using English language e-mail is a vital skill that all students need for the 21st century. (SM)

Bauman, J. (1998). E-Mail in the Business World: Issues for Teachers of ESP. Japan: 7.
Issues related to changing modes of business communication, particularly those that are computer-mediated, are discussed as they relate to the teaching of business English. current practices in computer-mediated communication (CMC) drawn from the business press and research journals is summarized, focusing on that which can help a business English istic, up-to-date business electronic mail (e-mail) usage. Discourse features of both synchronous and asynchronous CMC are described, including register, tendency toward d the phenomenon of "flaming." Technical features of e-mail are also noted, including message format and reply capabilities. A discussion of the business norms reflected in e-mail informal language, abbreviation, volume of information conveyed, reply conventions, and specific notations to express emotions. Some issues in teaching e-mail communication are also he role of error correction and use of authentic e-mail as instructional material. Contains 22 references. (MSE)

Kaufman, L. M., Jr. (1998). Email Keypals in Zone of Proximal Development. U.S.; Puerto Rico: 15.
This study analyzed the discourse of electronic mail (e-mail) exchanges between students of English as a second language (ESL) and other ESL learners from other cultures and at y levels (keypals), focusing on what these exchanges may reveal about learners' progress through the "Zone of Proximal Development," a Vygotskian concept denoting the gap between an accomplish alone and what he can accomplish in cooperation with others who are more skilled or experienced. Subjects were approximately 150 intermediate ESL students at the to Rico who use the computer laboratory once a week and regularly send and receive e-mail messages to/from each other or keypals in other countries. A variety of discourse modes ository; descriptive; narrative; and argumentative. Students were also surveyed concerning their perceptions of ESL learning through the experience. It was found that students were o use e-mail for communication, and used peer tutoring and collaboration in composing outgoing messages and studying incoming ones. General chat sessions not focused on a particular s productive for ESL learning. Excerpts from the student questionnaire are appended. (Contains 12 references.) (MSE)

Kitao, K. (1998). Internet Resources: ELT, Linguistics, and Communication. Japan: 678.
This book lists sources of information on the Internet that may be useful in English language teaching (ELT) and the study of linguistics and communication. Two introductory nformation on using the reference effectively and on the using the online resources it lists for graduate study, including graduate information needs and the resources required for the Internet. Subsequent chapters look at the Internet itself (structure, cost, kinds of resources, Internet characteristics, effective uses for research), electronic mail sadvantages, writing and receiving messages), mailing lists (practical and technical issues), the World Wide Web (characteristics and uses), Internet etiquette, professional for English language teachers, Internet use for English teaching, academic publishing, useful mailing lists, specific resources for linguists and English language teachers, useful tions, language testing, pen pals, teaching with literature, teaching English is Japan, and useful archives. (MSE)

Leffa, V. J. (1998). “Textual Constraints in L2 Lexical Disambiguation.” System 26(2): 183-94.
Examined the role of textual constraints, rather than previous knowledge, in resolving lexical ambiguities in second-language learning. Twenty ambiguous words with differing lations were selected, disambiguated based on collocation, and tested with a concordancer, using a 20,000,000-word English language corpus of expository text. Results suggested that uperior to using encyclopedic knowledge to solve lexical ambiguities. (SM)

Liaw, M.-L. (1998). “Using Electronic Mail for English as a Foreign Language Instruction.” System 26(3): 335-51.
Investigates the efficacy of integrating electronic-mail writing into two English-as-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms and explores the dynamics involved in the process of e-mail s in one class were paired up to exchange e-mail messages with the students in the other class for one semester. At the end of the project, a written survey and group interviews collect students' comments on and assessment of the approach. (Author/VWL)

Maarof, N. (1998). E-Mail as a Resource in Teacher Education. Malaysia: 12.
Use of electronic mail (e-mail) as a resource in a Universiti Kebangsaen Malaysia (UKM) English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher education course in 1997-98 is described. The raduate course, "The Teaching of Reading Skills in an ESL Context," enrolled 115 students with a range of experience with computers. One course project was a 7-to-10 page research dents must use information from an electronic bulletin board in ESL reading and further expand the topic using library materials. Students were required to include a minimum of two e e-mail resource, and worked in groups of 3-4 students. They were instructed to pose a question or message to the list and engage in a discussion, and submit a print-out as part of ly, students were placed into tutorial groups to provide practice with e-mail, gain support during the course of the project, and present their papers before submitting them to the ipants were surveyed after the project concerning their perceptions of it, difficulties encountered, preferred aspects of using e-mail, experimentation with other lists and Web ions of the small-group project experience. Student comments are included. Contains 9 references. (MSE)

Meloni, C. (1998). “The Internet in the Classroom.” ESL Magazine 1(1): 10-16.
Discusses the many reasons to use the Internet in English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms, including increased student motivation, authentic language use, global awareness, and ndliness (decreased use of paper). Examines two popular features of the Internet (electronic mail and the World Wide Web), presenting projects that can take advantage of the

Orr, T. (1998). The Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes Proceedings (Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, November 8, 1997). Japan, Aizu Univ. Aizuwakamatsu (Japan). Center for Language Research.: 113.
The 13 papers archived here represent a sampling of the 23 presentations approved for the Japan Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ESP): "An Overview of ESP in the 1990s" ); "'Easifying' ESP Texts for EFL Science Majors" (Judy Noguchi); "From Non-Communicative Exercises to Technical Writing: Profile of a Two-Semester Preparatory Sequence" (Doug n the Business World: Issues for Teachers of ESP" (John Bauman); "Assessment Dilemmas in a Language and Cross-Cultural Training Program" (Tom Hayes, Jane Cargile); "Collaborative worked Writing Classrooms: The Student Experience" (Tim Roskams); "Nursing Matters" (Charles Adamson); "Student Recommendations for ESP Curriculum Design" (Kin'ei Yoshida); ibals: A Look at Academic Writing in Engineering" (Laurence Anthony); "Simulation and Collaborative Learning in Political Science and Sociology Classrooms" (Sandra Peters, Deborah nguistic Analysis of Doctor-Patient Communication" (Margaret Simmons); "Phonological Consciousness Raising Tasks for the ESP Classroom" (Peter Sterlacci); and "Integrating ESL into assroom" (Sandra Peters, Deborah Saxon). (MSE)

Ruhe, V. (1998). “E-Mail Exchanges: Teaching Language, Culture, and Technology for the 21st Century.” TESL Canada Journal 16(1): 88-95.
Classroom electronic mail (e-mail) exchanges between University College of the Cariboo (British Columbia), University of Wisconsin, University of Northeastern Illinois, and Carleton o) college preparatory English-as-a-Second-Language students demonstrate that e-mail can be effective in teaching intercultural awareness, can create a positive affective climate, nglish-for-Academic-Purposes curriculum more relevant to students. (Author/MSE)

Schmitt, L. M. and K. T. Christianson (1998). “Pedagogical Aspects of a UNIX-Based Network Management System of English Instruction.” System 26(4): 567-89.
Describes the justification for design and implementation of a UNIX-based computer-assisted language-instruction system using a network of workstations containing functions useful d students as well as researchers. The present investigation is aimed at teaching writing to Japanese students at the University of Aizu in Japan. (Author/VWL)

Sherris, A. (1998). “Writers' Workshop.” English Teachers' Journal (Israel) 52: 33-38.
Israeli 12th graders studying English as a Second Language benefit from writers' workshops where they compose written portfolios and learn to express themselves fluently in writing. h paper and pen or work via the Internet. They write on selected issues and send letters and articles to various online and print journals and newspapers for potential publication.

Sun, Y.-C. (1998). The Effects of Teaching Approaches on Student's Writing Strategies in the E-Mail Settings. Taiwan: 16.
A study investigated the writing strategies used by English as a second language (ESL) students in writing electronic mail (e-mail) messages, and to what extent certain ESL teaching ed students' use of writing strategies. Subjects were 16 ESL teachers and their 208 university students. Students were administered a 50-item Likert-type inventory of e-mail writing ive, metacognitive, social, and affective). Teachers were administered questionnaires concerning their teaching approaches for e-mail writing. Results indicate significant negative n students' use of communication strategies and these teaching variables: degree of teacher involvement in the e-mail project; the teacher's expectation of the formality of riting styles; and the degree to which the e-mail grading affected the final grade. Recommendations are made for ways to integrate e-mail writing into ESL classrooms and to foster s understanding of the use of various writing strategies. (Contains 25 references.) (MSE)

Sun, Y.-C. (1998). Strategy Inventory for E-Mail Writing. Taiwan: 25.
A 50-item, five-point Likert scale inventory was designed to be a valid and reliable group-administered instrument to provide a profile of the declarative knowledge of electronic tegies used by students learning English as a second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL). The inventory was developed primarily for voluntary use by ESL/EFL teachers. The for E-mail Writing (SIEW) is in questionnaire form and has four strategy subscales: cognitive; metacognitive; social; and affective. This report describes the development and pilot W with two groups (n=51 and 208 college ESL students, respectively), and presents results. Implications for classroom ESL/EFL instruction and for incorporation of learning and nstruction are examined. The instrument is appended. (Contains 14 references.) (MSE)

Thurstun, J. and C. N. Candlin (1998). “Concordancing and the Teaching of the Vocabulary of Academic English.” English for Specific Purposes 17(3): 267-80.
A project used a concordancing program with a corpus of academic texts to introduce students unfamiliar with the language of academic discourse to some important, frequent, and s in English academic vocabulary. It has developed materials for classroom and independent use intended for native speakers as well as learners of English as a Second Language.

Troudi, S. (1998). Unity through Diversity. TESOL Arabia '98 4th International Conference. Conference Proceedings, Vol. III. United Arab Emirates, TESOL Arabia.: 172.
Papers from the 1998 international conference on the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) include: "The Future of English: Where Unity and Diversity Meet" Maximizing Student Writing and Minimizing Teacher Correction" (Phil Quirke); "How the Camel Got Its Hump: Bringing Literature Back into the ESL Classroom" (Snezha ; "Simultaneous Interpretation for Oral Fluency" (Sane M. Yagi); "Penpals to Keypals: Japanese Learners Help Arab Students To Learn English" (Hal Hennigan); "Do Learners Really rce Centers?" (Ian Harrison); "A Learner-Centered Approach to Assessing Listening Comprehension" (Christine Coombe, Jon Kinney); "Strategies and Techniques for Assessing Listening ); "Computerizing an EST Course" (Christine Cipriani); "A Critical Look at Computer-Aided Language Learning" (Christine M. Canning); "Building Bridges between Trainers and Teachers Emirates" (Hedi Guefrachi and Salah Troudi); "Learner Behavior in Large ESL Classes" (Mohammad Athar Khan); "Producing Culturally Sensitive Materials for Gulf Arab Students" (Lisa oyd); and "ESP in the Arab World" (Karen Asenavage). (MSE)

Yoshida, K. e. (1998). Student Recommendations for ESP Curriculum Design. Japan: 5.
A bilingual (Japanese/English) electronic mail survey of over 1,100 computer science students at the University of Aizu elicited recommendations for content and design of a ish for Special Purposes (ESP). Features students preferred included these: a four-skills introductory course during the first year; materials encouraging deep thinking; course s immediately applicable; balance of language and technical training; out-of-class opportunities for English use; student placement by skill level; electives suited to student needs ach skill level; class size limited to 10-15 students; instruction becoming more discipline-specific over time; student choice of teacher and teaching style; more but shorter o design or select assignments; English-only areas at the university; exchange programs; self-paced courses; some short, intensive courses; more English writing assignments across d the option to test out of courses, for high-ability students. Recommendations for features to avoid included: non-motivating courses and materials; native language use in class; speaking activities; lazy students; heterogeneous grouping; too-difficult or -easy assignments and grading; large discussion classes; non-discipline-related course material; chers; too-busy teachers; overemphasis on drills and exercises; and course decisions without student input. The questionnaire is appended. (MSE)

(1997). MINNE-WI TESOL Journal, Volumes 13 and 14. U.S.; Minnesota, Minnesota Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Minneapolis.: 233.
The two volumes of the journal, jointly produced by the Minnesota and Wisconsin English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers' associations, include these articles: "'Iwareru and ative Analysis of Japanese and American Communicative Styles" (Masako Saito, James H. Robinson); ""Reading in the Elementary Classroom" (Alice Weickelt); "An Overview of Hmong for a Dettinger, Thom A. Upton); "Reading Lab: From Pleasure Reading to Proficiency?" (Evangeline L. French); "The Paraphrasing Process of Native Speakers: Some Implications for the ESL Eckblad Anderson); "LEAP English Academy-- An Alternative High School for Newcomers to the United States" (Jeff DuFresne, Sandra Hall); "Defining the World: Content-Based Learning m" (Elizabeth A. Hoadley); The World Wide Web and Electronic Mail: Applications for ESL" (Joannah L. O'Hatnick); and "Reading Lab: A Comprehensive Starter Kit" (Tom Richards). Book ncluded in each volume. (MSE)

Best, L. (1997). The Nature of Teaching and Learning in the Multimedia Laboratory Classroom: Process, Activity, Problem-Solving, Engagement. U.S.; New Jersey: 8.
In Spring 1996, the author sought and received funding for a multimedia interactive laboratory classroom that would serve English as a Second Language (ESL) students at Kean College their beginning level course work through their advanced studies in composition and research. Reasons for seeking funding were many, the most compelling being the nature of teaching e college's ESL program and the literature on computer-assisted learning. An overview of the project, from its conception to implementation, is provided. Special emphasis is placed self as it has transformed the teaching and learning experiences of those using it. Comments about teaching and learning highlight activity and engagement, active learning, the and students, broadening the scope of knowledge, and assessment. The discussion includes descriptions of special class activities, software, and use of e-mail and the Internet for mation presented is applicable across content areas and skill levels. (Author/MES)

Boswood, T. (1997). New Ways of Using Computers in Language Teaching. New Ways in TESOL Series II. Innovative Classroom Techniques. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Inc. Alexandria VA.: 320.
A collection of classroom approaches and activities using computers for language learning is presented. Some require sophisticated installations, but most do not, and most use available on most workplace computer systems. The activities were chosen because they use sound language learning strategies. The book is divided into five parts: (1) activities that processing and desktop publishing programs to help students develop skills in conceptualizing, drafting, and editing written work; (2) using electronic mail and MOOS to engage chers in collaborative learning activities within and outside their institutions; (3) activities tapping World Wide Web sites for data definition, search, gathering, organization, and ument, and procedures for establishing a Web site; (4) use of multimedia (sound and video) technology, including incorporation of "edutainment" and reference software into teaching use of sound technology to teach pronunciation; and (5) use of concordancers, programs that analyze text corpora, to inform the design of worksheets and provide comparative data about g and target models. (MSE)

Boswood, T. (1997). New Ways of Using Computers in Language Teaching. New Ways in TESOL Series II. Innovative Classroom Techniques. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Inc. Alexandria VA.: 320.
A collection of classroom approaches and activities using computers for language learning is presented. Some require sophisticated installations, but most do not, and most use vailable on most workplace computer systems. The activities were chosen because they use sound language learning strategies. The book is divided into five parts: (1) activities that rocessing and desktop publishing programs to help students develop skills in conceptualizing, drafting, and editing written work; (2) using electronic mail and MOOS to engage ers in collaborative learning activities within and outside their institutions; (3) activities tapping World Wide Web sites for data definition, search, gathering, organization, and ent, and procedures for establishing a Web site; (4) use of multimedia (sound and video) technology, including incorporation of "edutainment" and reference software into teaching e of sound technology to teach pronunciation; and (5) use of concordancers, programs that analyze text corpora, to inform the design of worksheets and provide comparative data about and target models. (MSE)

Coniam, D. (1997). “A Practical Introduction to Corpora in a Teacher Training Language Awareness Programme.” Language Awareness 6(4): 199-207.
This paper sets out a series of awareness tasks for introducing English-as-a-Second-Language teachers to English language corpora and concordances. The aim of the task is to make itical of how English is described and presented in course materials and to show them that corpora are a good resource for language investigation. (Author/JL)

Grosz-Gluckman, V. (1997). A Look at the Use of Electronic Mail (e-mail) as a Learning Tool in the Writing Skills of Adult LEP Female Students. U.S.; New Jersey: 47.
This study examined the utility of electronic mail (e-mail) as an instructional tool for limited-English-proficient (LEP) adult females who have made little progress in learning as a Second Language (ESL). Six subjects, aged 30-50 years, enrolled in a university ESL program produced 25 e-mail exchanges with the research over a 5-week period. Subjects fell hose under age 40 with e-mail experience, and those aged 40-50 who were unfamiliar with e-mail. Analysis of the messages focused on number of messages, word counts, acquisition of ectly related to comprehensible input, and syntactic complexity resulting from the use of connectors in the subordination of clauses. Results indicate that supervised e-mail had a the writing skills of adult learners who have few opportunities to interact with target language speakers, and can be used as an effective extracurricular learning tool, older students. Appended materials include a brief subject questionnaire, summary of subjects' responses to it, letter of consent, and tables summarizing characteristics of the data and connectors in the data. Contains 32 references. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

Javed, S. (1997). Internet Guide for Literacy Teachers & Researchers. The All-in-One Internet Reference Tool for Literacy Professionals. Updated & Revised. Australia; Victoria, National Languages and Literacy Inst. of Australia Melbourne. Adult Education Resource and Information Service.: 97.
This guide addresses the needs of those teachers from the literacy field who are just beginning to explore the Internet as an exciting medium to enhance learning. Chapters 1-3, offer a brief introduction to what the Internet is (e-mail, mailing lists, newsgroups, File Transfer Protocol, World Wide Web), how to get one's computer connected (hardware and nd tips on choosing an Internet service provider (types and costs). Chapters 4-10, "Using Internet Tools," focus on using Internet tools: step-by-step explanations for using Eudora ing and leaving mailing list discussion groups; using the Adult-Literacy mailing list; using the World Wide Web; using Telnet; how to get the best of search engines so that g is efficient and productive; and using the ERIC database. Chapters 11 and 12, "Useful Web Sites," describe important Australian and international language and literacy sites. This wide range of educational centers, including virtual libraries, the focus being to assist language and literacy researchers to locate research information and teaching resources et. Section IV provides a glossary and lists of 55 websites on English as a Second Language and literacy, 27 literacy mailing lists, and 10 newsgroups. (YLB)

Kita, K. and H. Ogata (1997). “Collocations in Language Learning: Corpus-Based Automatic Compilation of Collocations and Bilingual Collocation Concordancer.” Computer Assisted Language Learning 10(3): 229-38.
Presents an efficient method for extracting collocations from corpora, which uses the cost criteria measure and a tree-based data structure. Proposes a bilingual collocation tool that provides language learners with collocation correspondences between a native and foreign language. (Eight references) (Author/CK)

LeLoup, J. and R. Ponterio (1997). Internet Technologies for Authentic Language Learning Experiences. ERIC Digest. U.S.; District of Columbia, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC.: 4.
With the focus on language, culture, and communication in the national standards for foreign language learning, foreign language teachers are continually searching for better ways ntic materials and providing experiences that will improve their students knowledge and skills in these target areas. This digest highlights a number of Internet applications that ich the foreign language classroom: electronic mail; electronic lists; electronic journals; the World Wide Web; streaming audio and video; search engines; remote access to libraries e transfer; and chat, audio, and video communication. (Author/JL)

Marsh, D. (1997). “Computer Conferencing: Taking the Loneliness Out of Independent Learning.” Language Learning Journal(15): 21-25.
Describes how a project in Great Britain designed to promote learner independence in English-as-a-foreign-language students clarified issues regarding the need to provide guidance ining program. Notes how e-mail and computer conferencing were used to encourage learners to work together, independent of the tutor, to learn English. (25 references) (CK)

Naylor, C. (1997). Developing Pro-Active Research Roles for Teacher Unions. Canada; British Columbia: 40.
Limited professional focus appears to impair teacher unions' external influence and internal communication. Inquiry and research may be used as a strategy to improve professional easing teacher unions' influence within the profession and helping them effectively address structural change issues. By shifting to the inquiry mode, the union would avoid making s, which are negatively portrayed, and gain more credibility. Means of supporting inquiry include utilization of electronic mail and World Wide Web sites, training in peer esearch, collaboration with external organizations, and support for individual research projects and small networks. Regardless of future policy shifts, a teacher union can uiry and research with limited resources. Four appendices contain: staff committee project report extracts, pages from "Teacher Inquirer" dealing with British Columbia (Canada) n the Internet, the English-as-a-Second Language home page, and teacher research in assessment project report extracts. (LH)

Parsell, J. and K. H. Wilhelm (1997). “Whole Class to Individualized Internet Use: An Overview for ESL/EFL Instructors.” College ESL 7(2): 81-100.
Provides a brief orientation to Internet use, moving from a whole-class orientation to focus on individual student and teacher use. Introduces helpful vocabulary relevant to ell as generic activities that can be adapted within most programs and settings. (Author/JL)

Strever, J. and K. Newman (1997). “Using Electronic Peer Audience and Summary Writing with ESL Students.” Journal of College Reading and Learning 28(1): 24-33.
Describes an extension of dialog journals, audience journals. States that, with the advent of e-mail, English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students can send their journals to an hey can also make meaning by summarizing their E-partners' journal entries which are sent to both E-partner and instructor. Suggests that this technique decentralizes the role of

Thurstun, J. and C. N. Candlin (1997). Exploring Academic English: A Workbook for Student Essay Writing. Australia; New South Wales, Macquarie Univ. Sydney (Australia). National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.: 150.
The workbook is designed to teach college-level writing skills to students for whom English is either the native or a second language. An introductory section for students describes cordance and provides instructions for the using the workbook. An introductory section for teachers is also included. Six instructional units address specific academic writing issues, ation to a word, concept, or process, and provide exercises and writing tasks. Unit topics include: (1) stating the topics ("issue, factor, concept"); (2) referring to the literature arch, source"); (3) reporting the research of others ("according to, claim, suggest"); (4) discussing processes undertaken in a study ("identification, analysis, criteria"); (5) ons tentatively ("may, possible, unlikely, probably"); and (6) drawing conclusions and summarizing (concluding, summarizing, "clear that, thus"). Answer keys are provided. A list of e units is appended. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)

Wang, L.-C. C. and D. W. Dalton (1997). Online English Learning Using Internet for English-as-a-Foreign-Language Students. U.S.; Ohio: 6.
Learning to communicate in English is an essential tool to access many resources via worldwide networks in the global society. Like students from many other countries, students in sh for years, but lack opportunities to practice. For English-as-a-Second-Language students, the World Wide Web provides a learning environment in which language skills can be communication with native speakers of English. A framework, the Online American Culture Learning Center, was created to study cross cultural distance education through the Web. This Kent State University (Ohio) and the National Taiwan Normal University will create an English learning environment through the discussion of six major topics on the Internet: owstone National Park, American Football, Rock 'n Roll, Shopping Malls, and Garage Sales. Training materials for these topics are being used in a pilot study to assess their vice teachers from Kent State University will serve as tutors and monitor student progress. Each tutor will have one student, who will correspond via e-mail. The project will line distance education can enhance learning in a foreign language and whether such exchanges promote multicultural understanding. Evaluation questions will be administered online, tudents and tutors will be used to assess the feasibility of the approach. (SLD)

Cassidy, J. A. (1996). “Computer-Assisted Language Arts Instruction for the ESL Learner.” English Journal 85(8): 55-57.
Describes a series of e-mail writing assignments and other online writing activities for English-as-a-second-language (ESL) students. Suggests that computers help improve ESL (RS)

Gan, S.-L. and et al. (1996). “Modeling Teaching with a Computer-Based Concordancer in a TESL Preservice Teacher Education Program.” Journal of Computing in Teacher Education 12(4): 28-32.
This study modeled teaching with a computer-based concordancer in a Teaching English-as-a-Second-Language program. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to work with computer ftware or vocabulary exercises to develop word attack skills. Pretesting and posttesting indicated that computer concordancing was more effective in teaching vocabulary skills. (SM)

Hartford, B. S. and K. Bardovi-Harlig (1996). "At Your Earliest Convenience:" A Study of Written Student Requests to Faculty. U.S.; Indiana: 15.
A study analyzed electronic-mail requests from college students (n=34 native speakers of English/NSs, 65 non-native speakers/NNSs) to faculty, randomly gathered over the period of a were analyzed for the affective response they produced both on the faculty recipient and on a non-recipient faculty member, and for linguistic forms used, including mitigators, for on on the faculty member, and for content, including references to time frames. Results indicate that requests that had a negative affect generally demonstrated a different the rights and obligations of the parties involved than positive-affect requests: negative-affect requests frequently assumed a greater obligation to comply by the faculty than the umed. Requests with positive impact in general also differed formally from those with negative impact. Differences also appeared in the messages' content, especially in the degree of imposition to the addressee, in the manner and presentation of time constraints related to the request, and in explanations for the requests. NNSs used fewer ir requests with negative impact, used personal time needs more often, and acknowledged imposition on the faculty members less often than NSs. (MSE)

Ishihara, S. (1996). Teaching Communicative Writing: Suggestions for High School English Teachers in Japan. Japan: 31.
An approach to teaching English writing to Japanese high school students that focuses on writing for communication is described. First, communicative writing is defined. Next, a writing in Japan, the notion of audience, is discussed and two ways of categorizing audiences (real vs. imagined and "safe" vs. "dangerous") are examined. Specific writing ess each kind of audience are then outlined. Teachers are advised to have students address a specific audience in an imagined situation first, then for a real audience such as other s. The exercises are built on a specified task such as introducing oneself to a stranger, gathering information, or writing signs. Cultural differences that affect the lationship are considered briefly, and writing techniques for establishing a dynamic interchange with the audience are explored, including those that integrate skills (writing and nd speaking/listening), use revision by either peers or teacher, and actually sending the communication to the audience, by mail or electronic transfer. Information concerning an tronic mail connection is appended. Contains 33 references. (MSE)

Javed, S. (1996). An Internet Guide for Language and Literacy Teachers and Researchers. Australia; Victoria, National Languages and Literacy Inst. Melbourne (Australia).: 81.
This guide, which is intended for language and literacy teachers and researchers who are becoming interested in the Internet, offers a brief overview of using the Internet and cess various language and literacy resources. Part 1, which is devoted to Internet basics, examines the following topics: the Internet (e-mail, mailing lists, newsgroups, file the World Wide Web); connection to the Internet (hardware and software needs, useful books and magazines, setting up a connection); Internet account selection (types of accounts, roviders). Discussed in part 2 are using e-mail and mailing lists and using and searching the World Wide Web. In part 3 instructions are provided for accessing the following acy databases/resources: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia database; ERIC database; and National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research resources. ated listing of eight Australian websites and eight international websites that are considered important to language and literacy teachers and researchers. Presented in part 5 are sses of 55 language and literacy websites, 27 mailing lists, and 10 newsgroups and a glossary. (MN)

Le, V. and et al. (1996). “Tips from the Classroom.” TESOL Journal 6(2): 30-36.
Discusses ways to improve the learning experience in English-as-a-Second-Language classes. These include interacting with others, discussions of interesting subjects, playing games on focus, communicating over the computer with native speakers and establishing analytical and comprehensible grading criteria. (Three references) (CK)

Liaw, M.-L. (1996). Communicative Devices Used by EFL Students in E-Mail Writing. Taiwan: 29.
A study investigated the communication strategies used by students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in electronic mail interactions with native speakers of English. Subjects students in Taiwan paired with a like number of pre-service EFL teacher trainees in the United States. The discourse of 87 e-mail entries by the Taiwanese students was analyzed year, focusing on communicative strategies (avoidance/reduction, achievement/compensatory, time-gaining/stalling devices) and interactive speech acts (questions and answers, eratives, discourse management). The mean entry length was 13 sentences. It was found that the EFL students used most of the communication strategies commonly found in oral luding approximation, literal translation, foreignizing, asking for help, using all-purpose words, using fillers, circumlocution, word coinage, and nonlinguistic means. The students icipation in the correspondence by using a variety of interactive speech acts. An additional device noticed was purposeful choice of discussion topics of common interest. Use of es was an unanticipated finding. Findings were borne out in students' essays about the experience. Contains 30 references. (MSE)

Miyao, M. (1996). On-Campus E-Mail for Communicative Writing. Japan: 18.
A project using on-campus electronic mail (e-mail) to teach communicative writing in English as a Second Language to Japanese junior college students is described. The project had planning; (2) piloting with a small group of students; and (3) implementation in three large classes (n=55, 28, 36). The aim was to help students write more communicatively and with ning involved gaining student access to the campus e-mail system, first on a small scale and later with access to more computer services. The pilot involved nine second-year uation project. Students needed to be familiarized with two-way message exchanges. However, after exchanges began, student-teacher interactions became more interesting. Learning d spell-checking in English and document transfer were initially a challenge. Implementation with three larger classes, in which most students were familiar with e-mail, began with oduction writing activity. Partners questioned each other, commented on introductions, and made grammatical corrections, helping each other refine the final product. Teacher ded weekly. It was found that the method facilitated timely and comfortable communication. The experiments provided insights into advantages, difficulties, and effective procedures communication. (MSE)

O'Baoill, D. P. (1996). TEANGA 16: The Irish Yearbook of Applied Linguistics = Bliainiris na Teangeolaiochta Feidhmi in Eirinn. Ireland, California State Dept. of Education. Sacramento. Office of Special Programs.: 189.
Essays in applied linguistics presented in this annual review include: "Learner Autonomy: Some Steps in the Evolution of Theory and Practice" (David Little); "An Investigation of the f Second Language Learners" (Elizabeth O'Gorman); "Strategies for Identifying Terms in Specialised Texts" (Jennifer Pearson); "Inferencing and the Student of Translation" (John n as Persuasion in Research Articles" (Sarah Thomas, Thomas Hawes); "French Vocabulary--Looking for 'le mot juste'" (David L. Parris); "Electronic Texts and Concordances in the sroom" (Pearson); "The Noises Made by Poems: An Exploration of the Use of Poetry in the Advanced English Language Classroom" (Sarah Ekdawi); "Video in the Irish Language Classroom" "How Snowmen Move: Some Aspects of Lexical Choice in Irish Sign Language" (Patrick McDonnell); and "Extending the Lexicon of Irish Sign Language" (Patrick A. Matthews). (MSE)

Owen, C. (1996). “Do Concordances Require to Be Consulted.” ELT Journal 50(3): 219-24.
Revisits the debate on linguistics and prescription, with particular reference to corpus linguistics. The article describes an encounter with a large corpus and concludes that iption is an essential, desirable aspect of language teaching which does not depend on corpus evidence for its integrity. (nine references) (Author/CK)

Qiao, H. L. and R. Sussex (1996). “Using the Longman Mini-concordancer on Tagged and Parsed Corpora, with Special Reference to Their Use as an Aid to Grammar Learning.” System 24(1): 41-64.
Presents methods for using the Longman Mini-Concordancer on tagged and parsed corpora rather than plain text corpora. The article discusses several aspects with models to be applied as an aid to grammar learning. This paper suggests exercises suitable for teaching English to both native and nonnative speakers. (13 references) (Author/CK)

Somogyi, E. (1996). “Using the Concordancer in Vocabulary Development for the Cambridge Advanced English (CAE) Course.” On-Call 10(2): 29-35.
Discusses concordancing activities tailored for use with English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students in the Cambridge Advanced English course in Australia. The article focuses on ng appropriate vocabulary to complete gapped text. Findings indicate that these activities benefit ESL students by providing authentic examples of language in context.(10 references)

Tao, L. and D. Reinking (1996). What Research Reveals about Email in Education. U.S.; Georgia: 14.
How educators, especially those in the field of literacy, view and make use of email and its text-based features has been the subject of research. Journal articles addressing what archers know about email and how they work with email communication were reviewed. Email has moved from a limited group of users to the masses. According to researchers, email the following prominent features: text-based features; multiple connections and easy transmission; asynchrony and synchrony; easy storage and manipulation; rapidity and nd relative anonymity. Existing research literature can be divided into 3 parts: using email as a research tool and other research concerns stated; focusing on user perception and in instructional settings; and assessing the effects of email communication on users. Existing literature on teaching usually consists of action research studies which help to instruction within the classroom. Some also tend to be more summative in their concerns about the students' performance in classes. Suggestions for future research on email in ings are: (1) take advantage of text-based nature of email communication; (2) determine the extent to which beneficial gains of students concerning instructional goals would be tigate non-traditional learners such as part-time students and English-as-a-Second Language students; (4) study more in-depth the language features of email communication; and (5) xtual context and interactive demands of email communication for students below the fifth-grade level. (Contains 41 references.) (RS)

Thurstun, J. (1996). Teaching the Vocabulary of Academic English via Concordances. Australia; New South Wales: 7.
A project using a computerized concordancing program in combination with a computerized corpus of academic texts to teach academic English is described. It is intended for native rners of English, and focuses on frequently-used words common to all academic fields. The vocabulary was selected from an academic word list, and consisted of about 250 items used for s of academic writing: stating topic; referring to the literature; expressing opinions tentatively; explaining processes used; reporting research of others; linking ideas correctly; lusions. The concordancing program was then used to determine frequency of the terms' use. Resulting lists present students with multiple examples of academic vocabulary items in ns concerning word use accompany the lists. Initial student response to the materials indicates that because the mode of presentation is new, some guidelines for use are needed; be instructed to: (1) look at the words surrounding the key term, thinking of meaning; (2) familiarize themselves with patterns of language surrounding the term to answer the ractice key terms without referring to the concordance; and (4) create their own writing using the terms to fulfill a particular writing function. Contains 11 references. (MSE)

Wang, Y.-m. (1996). E-Mail Dialogue Journaling in an ESL Reading and Writing Classroom. U.S.; Guam: 17.
This case study involved designing an electronic-based environment to explore the effectiveness of electronic mail (e-mail) as a writing tool for dialogue journaling. The setting an intermediate-level reading and writing class in the American English Institute Program on the campus of a large public university. Over a period of 9 weeks, six randomly chosen d Language (ESL) students in the class wrote dialogue journals to their instructor using e-mail while the rest of the students in the class wrote dialogue journals to the instructor ncil. The issues investigated were: What were the students' attitudes toward dialogue journal writing via e-mail? What was the instructor's perception regarding e-mail dialogue hat problems occurred in the process of using e-mail as a tool for doing dialogue journal writing? In what ways were e-mail journals different from paper journals? The findings of t a variety of factors combined to exert an influence on the participants' attitudes towards e-mail. Limited knowledge about e-mail systems prevented some students from taking a e-mail as a unique communication tool. Comparison of e-mail journals and paper journals reveals that e-mail created a different writing style than that of paper and pencil. For urnal entries, participants in the e-mail group tended to: (1) use formula functions like opening and closing greetings (none of the students in the paper group used any); (2) use nctions (asking questions) than those in the paper group; and (3) produce more language functions per writing session. In addition, e-mail communication was more spontaneous than ontains 38 references.) (Author/SWC)

(1995). Adult Education Newsletter, 1991-1995. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.: 66.
The seven issues of the newsletter contain articles, letters, professional announcements, reports, reviews, and classroom instructional ideas of interest to teachers of adult d Language (ESL). Articles address these topics: diversity and commonalities among language and literacy teachers; part-time teaching; literacy for homeless women with drug and an organization of Central American students; an organization of adult learners concerned about the future of a school; an English proficiency test; program evaluation; a student's ing to America; teacher licensing; the role of theory in program or individual assessment; the teacher as student in participatory learning; workplace education projects; sis for curriculum development; workplace program evaluation; publication of student writing; teaching older adults; learner-generated materials; taking and using photographs in mplification; writing in the native language; family literacy; poetry about jobs and work; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) resource materials; team-teaching with a tudents with post-traumatic stress disorder; on-line professional communication; cancer education; advocacy; federal legislation; reading aloud; and first-language literacy. Vol. Workplace Literacy." Vol. 19, n2 has theme "Publishing Student Work." Vol. 21, n1 has theme "Health Education in Adult ESL." Vol. 21, n2 has theme "Native Language Literacy." (MSE) ringhouse on Literacy Education)

Allen, M. (1995). E-Mail in the Writing Class: Promoting Student Communication. U.S.; Indiana: 9.
A Valparaiso University (Indiana) computer network was used to investigate the use of campus electronic mail to encourage students in English-as-a-Second-Language reading and increase communication among themselves, to make homework assignments more interesting, and to familiarize students with on-line composing and editing. Four types of activities ch are described here. They include: (1) a vocabulary/idiomatic expression exchange, in which students are given an expression for which they must find and send a definition to ass including the teacher; (2) on-screen debate, in which two students discuss an issue on a split screen; (3) opinion collection, with each student sending an opinion to classmates onding; and (4) an exercise in which students write a paragraph, reacting to a reading, movie, song, or controversial statement, for response by teacher or classmates. Samples of (MSE)

Pickard, V. (1995). Citing Previous Writers: What Can We Say Instead of 'Say'? Hong Kong: 15.
This concordance study uses a corpus of applied linguistic articles to explore how and why accomplished academic writers use quotations and citations, specifically the word 'say,' and ical and grammatical choices they make. Citations were examined in almost 50,000 words from 11 articles to document use by experts writers. Overuse of 'say' by ond-Language (ESL) students is symptomatic of a lack of vocabulary as well as a lack of understanding of the requirements of academic writing in acknowledging sources. Findings dents lack knowledge of the citation behavior of expert writers and that concordanced research and classroom exercises may help teachers become better able to empower students to make wareness and choice. Appendixes present the corpus list, most frequent reporting verbs, and concordanced worksheet. (Contains 20 references.) (NAV)

Tillyer, A. (1995). The TESL-L Electronic Network. U.S.; New York, City Univ. of New York NY. Hunter Coll.: 47.
The report describes a federally-funded project at Hunter College (New York) to develop an Internet and electronic mail-based resource for teachers of English as a Second Language m has three major components: (1) the TESL-L Electronic Discussion Forum, a list service operating on a simple e-mail program and offering teachers a chance to communicate with peers, asking questions, getting advice, and offering comments; (2) eight special interest e-mail branches open for discussion of areas of particular teacher interest; and (3) an of materials for teaching English as a Second Language. The total number of subscriptions to the TESL-L Forum and its related branches and archives rose from 750 at the beginning ember 1992) to 19,000 by the grants' end (September 1995). The usefulness of the project to teachers has been validated by the United States Information Agency, which has assumed oject as a service to teachers and its project officers around the world. (MSE)

Warschauer, M. (1995). E-Mail for English Teaching: Bringing the Internet and Computer Learning Networks into the Language Classroom. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages Inc. Alexandria VA.: 128.
This book is designed to provide essential information for English teachers to begin using electronic mail (e-mail) and the Internet as tools for teaching English, as well as for to take a look at new approaches and ideas. It includes ways that teachers can use the Internet for their own research and communication and a myriad of ways that teachers can n using e-mail and new tools like MOOs and the World Wide Web. Throughout, the book highlights pedagogical factors for teachers to consider when bringing students into collaborative as computer learning networks. Chapter 1 explains what e-mail is and how to use it; chapter 2 introduces ways teachers can use e-mail and the Internet on their own, for communication with colleagues, and accessing resources. Chapter 3 discusses uses of e-mail and computer networking in a single classroom, while chapter 4 discusses possibilities for he Internet for cross-cultural communication. Chapter 5 introduces the use of e-mail in distance education to teach language, provide cultural orientation, and train teachers. s how teachers and students can gather data from around the world using special tools for the Internet, and chapter 7 discusses ways of integrating all of the above within an m. Appendixes list journals, contacts and organizations, electronic mail sites, and an electronic mail glossary. Contains 13 references. (NAV)

Allison, D. (1994). Why "Often" Isn't "Always.". Hong Kong: 16.
A study investigated the frequent choice of the term "always" instead of the more appropriate term "often" in the essay writing of native Chinese-speaking learners of English as a (ESL), focusing on how problematic usage of "always" can adversely affect perceptions of the student's competence in undertaking an academic discussion. Successful diagnoses of the ul treatments are then sought in grammar textbooks. The apparent persistence of the problem among Hong Kong undergraduate students is then related to choices available in Cantonese c analyses of the descriptive facts and communicative options in English. A small sample of concordance data is examined to suggest how the practice of ESL student writers at the ng Kong compares with the usage of other writers in locally published academic writing. Classroom techniques for teaching alternative lexico-grammatical possibilities and their discussed. (MSE)

Bezard, M. and C. Bourguignon (1994). Tools for Language Programs. ICEM Technical Information Bulletin No. 19. Netherlands, International Council for Educational Media The Hague (Netherlands).: 24.
This overview of available technologies and how they can be used in teaching languages is divided into three sections. The first, "Multimedia Inputs," examines digitized multimedia le in language courses, electronic books, encyclopedias and dictionaries, and games, and takes a closer look at "unimedia" products and audiovisual materials. Tools for oral ewed and some examples given, including a computer equipped with headset, microphone, and audio card; CD-ROM; and text, sound, and associated images. Discussion of reading on a vers electronic books, including books on CD-ROM, some of which can be edited on screen; hypermedia, encyclopedias, and dictionaries; learning by exercises, games, and animation; uter software; educational television, including interactive compact disks (CD-Is), videodisks, and the computer and video. The second section, "Exchange Modes and Places," focuses cation media, such as long distance dialogs via teletext, electronic mail, and video letters, and the language room as a multimedia resource center providing access to new ll as traditional resources. Under the heading "Methods and Choices," the third section provides guidelines for organizing a language room, including preliminary questions, modes, functioning, equipping a compatible PC, and equipping a Macintosh. (BBM)

Bird, N. (1994). Language and Learning. Hong Kong, Hong Kong Education Dept. Inst. of Language in Education.: 562.
Papers from a 1993 International Conference on Language in Education include: "A Language Development Approach to Education" (M. A. K. Halliday); Text, Talk, and Inquiry: Schooling as nticeship" (G. Wells); "Chinese Orthography and Reading" (O. J. L. Tzeng); "Task-Centred Assessment in Language Learning" (G. Brindley); "Task as a Unit of Teaching Analysis" (S. J. Functional Approach in Assessing Written Texts" (D. Nunan); "Steppe by Step: A Cultural Approach to Language Tasks" (C. Barron); "Coherence and Continuity in the Task-Centred Language al Education as a Framework for Task-Based Language Teaching" (B. Bushell, B. Dyer); "From Task Description to Task Enactment: Teachers' Interpretation of Language Learning Tasks" (G. g, A. Lo, T. Lee); "How Students Revise Propositions" (P. Falvey, S. Sengupta); "Writing from Sources: Does Source Material Help or Hinder Students' Performance?" (J. A. Lewkowicz); alling on Reading Comprehension" (I. K. B. Lee); "The Variety and Effectiveness of Strategies Employed in Vocabulary Explanations in EFL Classes in Hong Kong" (A. L. On-lai); "English g in the Primary Curriculum" (V. Yu, E. Chu, S. Yuen-lan, R. Yau); "Investigating Lexis beyond the Most Frequent Words, Part 2" (N. Bird); "The Future Role of EFL Textbook Resources . Adamson, J. C. K. Lee); "Concordancing for School" (V. Pickard, K. Chan, J. Tibbetts); "What Makes Authentic Materials Different? The Case of English Language Materials for vision" (A. McNeill); "Resources for the Independent EFL Learner in Japan" (S. M. Ryan); "Action Research Contributes More to Teaching Than Just Solving Discrete Problems in the ueller); "Computer-Mediated Communication and Teacher Education: The Case of Telenex" (D. Coniam, S. Sengupta, A. B. M. Tsui, W. Kam-yin); "Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Good and Learners" (G. Yong-qi); "Chinese Readers' Metacognitive Awareness in Reading Chinese and English" (C. Chern); "The Impact of Illustrations and Cultural Schemata on Hong Kong Pupils' nsion and Recall of Text" (T. Dolan); "Word Printed Frequency/Familiarity and Structure Complexity Effects on L1 and L2 Word Recognition Processes in Chinese" (Y. Sun); "A Word in t Extent Does Hearing a New Word Help Learners To Remember It?" (M. Hill); "Pig in the Middle? Effects of Mediating Tasks on Cognitive Processing of Text" (D. M. Allison, V. Berry, J. Assessment of Spoken Language Under varying Interactional Conditions" (V. Berry); "The Grammatical Awareness and Knowledge of Hong Kong Teachers of English" (S. Andrews); "Some of Native and Non-Native Speaker Teachers of English" (A. McNeill); and "Using Concurrent Verbal Reports as Teaching Tools in Language Teacher Education" (M. Falvey). (MSE)

Conrad, B. and H. Rautenhaus (1994). Innovations in Teachers' Education: Using the Concordancer as a Means for Students at University and at School Level. Germany: 12.
The use of computerized concordances in second language teaching is discussed, drawing on the results of a study undertaken in a teaching seminar. In the study, a corpus of 401 from electronic mail (e-mail) texts written by American pupils to a German school were analyzed with an electronic concordancer and compared with 326 sentences from an English used in the schools. Analysis indicates that the e-mail texts: contained many verbs expressing liking and disliking, and infinitive constructions; contained many modifying showed preferred use of "I am" instead of "I'm." It is concluded that the language of e-mail texts represents a variant that is part of the modern world but generally neglected in ge classroom, and that use of concordances allows students to gain colloquial English, learn how to use it in social contexts, and learn in an explorative fashion, developing lying structures and communicative functions. Contains eight references. (MSE)

Davis, B. H. and C. Ye-Ling (1994). “Long-Distance Collaboration with On-Line Conferencing.” TESOL Journal 4(2): 28-31.
Describes a collaborative program organized by English professors at National Kaohsiung Normal University in Taiwan and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, in which r courses at the two institutions communicate via online conferencing. Such communication aids student learning and enhances cultural awareness (five references) (MDM)

Granger, S. (1994). “Learner Corpus: A Revolution in Applied Linguistics.” English Today 10(3): 25-29.
Describes the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE), a project at the University of Louvain in Belgium that collects written work from, and analyzes the usage of, advanced a Foreign Language learners. Recurring combinations and concordances in ICLE are examined. (Contains five references.) (MDM)

Kroonenberg, N. (1994). “Developing Communicative and Thinking Skills via Electronic Mail.” TESOL Journal 4(2): 24-27.
Describes a secondary school language teacher's use of electronic mail and an electronic bulletin board system to conduct several classes for multinational students of English at ional School. Student assignments, student assessment, the development of communication and thinking skills, and unexpected difficulties involving electronic communication are ferences) (MDM)

Marcos, K. (1994). Internet for Language Teachers. ERIC Digest. U.S.; District of Columbia, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics Washington DC.: 4.
After providing an overview of Internet, this Digest outlines information and services that Internet can make available. Specific focus is on the following: (1) electronic mail; (2) ibrary and other databases; (3) subscription to lists and other electronic fora; (4) subscription to electronic journals; and (5) file transfer. A substantial resource list is 17 references (including works consulted and works for further reading). (VWL)

Markee, N. (1994). “Using Electronic Mail to Manage the Implementation of Educational Innovations.” System 22(3): 379-89.
This paper discusses the use of electronic mail (e-mail) as an important resource for managing the implementation of educational innovations, focusing on its use in d-Language (ESL) courses to foster communication between the ESL program and teaching assistants in charge of ESL courses. (11 references) (MDM)

Morgan, N. A. (1994). An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups. ERIC Digest. U.S.; New York, ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology Syracuse NY.: 4.
The Internet is a vast computer network that consists of smaller interconnected computer networks. As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new means of communication opens up to ents. This digest describes some sample services and resources available to the K-12 community via electronic mail. Information sources covered in this digest are question answering g AskERIC; listservs or electronic discussion groups; and Usenet newsgroups, an electronic bulletin board system. (Contains 9 references.) (JLB)

Pickard, V. and et al. (1994). Concordancing for Schools: Problems and Potential. Hong Kong: 16.
The value and role of concordancers (simple computer programs that can quickly analyze electronic texts to find occurrences of a given word, part of a word, or phrase and display it iate context) in secondary school English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teaching are examined. First, their use in higher education is discussed, including their role in syllabus design, isting course materials, preparation of print instructional materials, and classroom use by students. The kind of language corpus needed for secondary school instruction is then factors, both instructional and technical, in compilation of an appropriate corpus are noted. Finally, advantages and constraints of use in secondary level instruction are outlined. ntage is seen as the concordancer's potential role in student empowerment and as a tool for autonomous and advanced learning. Constraints identified include cost, limited space for room time limitations, and need for change in student and teacher attitudes toward computers. It is concluded that concordancers can be useful at the secondary school level, with and appropriate teacher training. Contains 26 references. (MSE)

(1993). Technology in TESOL. U.S.; Virginia, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.: 61.
This special issue is devoted to the theme of advancing technology in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). Articles include: "Technology in TESOL" thia Holliday); TESOL Technology: Imposition or Opportunity?" (Simon Murison-Bowie); "A Review of Advanced Technologies for L2 Learning" (Nancy Hunt); "A Very Verbal Medium: Through Closed Captions" (Robert Vanderplank); "Teaching Listening in the Language Lab: One Program's Experience" (Judith Tanka); "Distance Team Teaching and Computer Learning Sayers); "Instructional Delivery via Electronic Mail" (Alice Anne Goodwin, Jim Hamrick, Timothy C. Stewart); "Two Wrongs Can Make a Right" (Susan Jay); "Teacher Talk Versus Book r); "Teaching Writing on a Computer Network" (Nancy Sullivan); "Talking Journals" (Kathleen S. Foley); "Shared Computer Projects for Beginners" (Janet Payne); "The Last Entry Was ay on a Network" (Trudy Smoke); "Good Evening, and Welcome to This Edition of the News" (Maria Julia Sainz); and "Is There A Video In This Essay?" (Jose A. Santos). Book and rials reviews, a question-and-answer column, and professional notes are also included. (MSE)

Leu, D. J. (1993). Examining Central Issues in Literacy Research, Theory, and Practice. Forty-Second Yearbook of the National Reading Conference. U.S.; Illinois, National Reading Conference Inc.: 467.
The 43 conference papers in this yearbook cover such diverse topics in the field of reading as the analysis of children's literacy responses, the study of aesthetic literacy, and of phonemic awareness. The yearbook includes both data-driven studies and conceptual explorations of diverse literacy learners. The yearbook opens with the presidential address to searching the Literal: Of Muted Voices, Second Texts, and Cultural Representations" (D. E. Alvermann). The other papers include: "Assessment as Social Practice" (Peter Johnston); ning: Exploring Schooling Issues That Impact Linguistically Diverse Students" (O. B. Miramontes); "What Is Scaffolded Instruction? Definitions, Distinguishing Features, and Meyer); "The Case for Expressive Writing for Developmental College Readers" (I. Baker and P. I. Mulcahy-Ernt); "Reading in English as a Translation Task: Fluent Deaf Young Adult Chrosniak); "Portfolios: Agents of Change and Empowerment in Classrooms" (R. A. Stewart and E. E. Paradis); "Literacy and Diversity: Do We Need Dichotomies or Not?" (C. A. Elster Whole Language and Research: The Case for Caution" (M. C. McKenna and others); "Mexican-American Bilingual Kindergartners' Collaborations in Meaning Making" (J. Battle); "Literacy nglish Proficient Students: What Information Is Available to Mainstream Teachers" (G. E. Garcia and others); "Home Contributions to Early Language and Literacy Development" (D. E. Temple); "Moving toward Aesthetic Literacy in the First Grade" (B. Berghoff); "Environmental Print, Phonemic Awareness, Letter Recognition, and Word Recognition" (S. A. Stahl and nstructing Community and Intertextuality in Electronic Mail" (J. Myers); "Children's Insights into Literature: Using Dialogue Journals to Invite Literary Response" (C. Farest and C. r Half: A Case Study of Asymmetrical Communication in Content-Area Reading Student-Professor Dialogue Journals" (T. W. Bean and J. J. Zulich); "Preservice Elementary Teachers' ns of Portfolio Assessment" (D. W. Frazier and others); "The Influence of Context, Community, and Culture: Contrasting Cases of Teacher Knowledge Development" (D. L. Fox); "Literacy Elementary Classrooms: Teachers' Beliefs and Practices" (P. L. Scharer and others); "Causal Relations and Their Effects on the Comprehension of Narrative Texts" (W. H. Slater); opment in Narrative Stories of Emergent Writers" (M. A. Domico); "Voicing in Spanish to English Spelling Knowledge Transfer" (L. Ferroli and T. Shanahan); and "Can Teachers' Images nflict with Goals of Process Writing?" (S. J. McCarthey). The NRC program, and author and subject indexes are attached. (RS)

Ma, B. K. C. (1993). Small-Corpora Concordancing in ESL Teaching and Learning. Hong Kong: 20.
For many years, computerized concordancing has been the domain of computational linguists, lexicographers, and dictionary compilers working with large corpora of millions of words. -corpora concordancing in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) settings is a relatively new application and has sparked keen interest among researchers and teachers since the mid-1980s. sses the use of small-corpora concordancing in three domains of ESL: (1) syllabus design and evaluation; (2) classroom teaching; (3) test construction. In particular, the classroom proach as an evolving ESL methodology is discussed with reference to its rationale, its potentials, its current applications, and its impact. The paper concludes with some critical has been achieved so far with small-corpora concordancing and points out some directions for the future. (Author/JL)

Nakhoul, L. (1993). Hong Kong Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching, 16. Hong Kong, Hong Kong Univ. Language Centre.: 169.
Articles and reports in this issue include the following: "Co-text or No Text: A Study of an Adapted Cloze Technique" (Dave Coniam); "Small-Corpora Concordancing in ESL Teaching and K.C. Ma); "Interdisciplinary Dimensions of Debate" (S. Byron, L. Goldstein, D. Murphy, E. Roberts); "Can English Enhancement Programmes Be Efficient?" (Desmond Allison); "Towards a ca'" (Nigel J. Bruce); "Linking Language and Content Instruction in the Social Sciences" (Lily Leung, Max Hui Bon Hoa); "Using Study Guides: An Approach to Self-Access" (Linda rs' Attitudes to Self-Access Learning" (Elaine Martyn, Peter Voller); "Copyright, Publishers, and Self-Access Centres" (David Gardner); "Developing Computer Text Corpora at HKU" (Phil ss Report on Plagiarism: (Alastair Pennycook); and "Progress Report on Bilingual Writing Ability" (Shirley Lim). Book reviews, conference reports, and a list of contents for the Hong inguistics and Language Teaching, Numbers 1-15 are also included in this issue. (JL)

Jaquith, P. (1992). Technology in Language Teaching. Japan, Language Inst. of Japan Odawara.: 135.
In this special issue on technology in language teaching, major articles include: "Sociocultural Aspects of Second Language Acquisition" (David Nunan); "The Need for Multi-Media ESL : A Psychological Investigation into Learning Styles" (Don W. Hinkelman, Jay M. Pysock); "Can Japanese Children Learn English?" (David Paul); "Concordancing in the Language Classroom" g, Dorothy Cheung, Lai Phooi Ching); "Jigsaw: Cooperative Learning for EFL Students" (Anita Lie); "Education and CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction)" (P. L. Knowles); "Application of on Technology to Language Instruction" (Dimitry Rtischev); "A Glimpse of the Virtual Future" (Macey B. Taylor); "Look Who's Talking: A Computer-Assisted System for Discourse Analysis" Integrating Video into Teacher Education" (Susan Stempleski); "Teacher Training Videotapes for TESOL" (Dean Brodkey); "Using Computers in Language Testing" (J. D. Brown); and "A ters in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching: A CALL Handbook'" (Paul A. Cunningham). Additional book reviews, publications notices, and professional announcements are included.

Jenkinson, E. (1992). A Professor Responds by Computer to the Writing of Elementary Students. ERIC Digest. U.S.; Indiana, ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills Bloomington IN.: 4.
During the summer of 1990, a university English education professor in Indiana responded to the writing of 20 fourth through seventh graders via a computer installed in his home. daily anything ranging from a 3-line haiku to 10-20 computer-screen stories. The classroom teacher took the students through the steps in the writing process, suggesting topics and e appropriate. All of the students' writing was sent daily by computer network to the professor, who responded to each piece. More than half of the students incorporated some, if ofessor's suggestions in their revisions. After responding to 263 pieces of writing, the professor now has no doubts that students at all levels of instruction write more and write an use a computer and when they have an interested audience in addition to the classroom teacher. (RS)

Tella, S. (1992). “The Adoption of International Communications Networks and Electronic Mail into Foreign Language Education.” Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 36(4): 303-12.
How computer-mediated communication through international communications networks and electronic mail can be used in foreign language education was investigated in a multisite study of 134 Finnish secondary school students learning English and foreign participants from British and U.S. schools. Introducing these technological innovations proved quite

Tella, S. (1992). Boys, Girls, and E-Mail: A Case Study in Finnish Senior Secondary Schools. Research Report 110. Finland, Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Teacher Education.: 134.
The educational potential accessible with the aid of international communications networks and computer-mediated communication was explored with Finnish secondary school students in udy that also investigated gender differences and quality of education. Subjects were 108 students (46 males and 62 females) from six classes in three senior secondary schools with nglish. Girls provided slightly more analytical comments than did boys, and more females than males appeared ready to commit themselves to a new kind of learning environment. at when computer-mediated communication is introduced, attention should be paid to what each sex masters best in computing. Male interest in hardware could be fruitfully combined in word processing and their ability to exchange ideas in writing. Both sexes should have access to computing resources in their schools with electronic mail (e-mail) as a tool. An is that males and females can enjoy working in a learning environment focused on computer-mediated communication. They can become deeply committed to working in an e-mail equipped llaborative learning environment and can learn from each other and from interacting with the computer. Six charts present study findings, and four appendixes contain the two student their English translations. (Contains 108 references.) (SLD)

Tella, S. (1992). Talking Shop via E-Mail: A Thematic and Linguistic Analysis of Electronic Mail Communication. Research Report 99. Finland, Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Education.: 316.
The linguistic purposes of this research were to focus on content, themes and topics, and to analyze the way the target language (English) was used in e-mail. Communicativeness and ommunicator (writer-reader) became central, emphasizing the multidirectional character of e-mail communication. The basic tenet of communicativeness and a naturalistic communicative nt in classrooms was connected to the question of the degree of initiative and free negotiable topic choice. The research problems included issues concerning content (themes and ge used in e-mail communication. Research methodology was an ethnographic approach complemented by a thematic and linguistic analysis on content and language. The Finnish sted of six classes in three senior secondary schools with four teachers of English. The foreign participants consisted of schools in Britain and the United States with further a, Canada, Germany, Iceland, Japan, and Sweden. Data were gathered during fieldwork (November 1989-May 1990). Results of the study indicated that process-led collaborative e-mail uraged writing and exchanging ideas across the world; a collaborative effort made writing more public, bringing social and negotiation skills into focus; modes of writing became mail formed a new repository of teaching and learning materials; e-mail written on-line resembled oral communication while off-line writing showed more textual and linguistic nization; phatic use of language was essential to the functionality of the communication channel; and artistic, emotive, and poetic language was widely used as well as referential of the target language. Twenty-one of the 98 references are in English. An abstract in Finnish is also provided. (Author/ALF)

(1991). Outreach and Technical Assistance Network. Two Year Evaluation Report. December 1, 1989 - November 30, 1991. U.S.; California, Hacienda La Puente Unified School District City of Industry CA.: 52.
The staff development component of the Outreach and Technical Assistance Network (OTAN) began the second year of operation with all 11 resource centers active. Constant emphasis and en to providing staff development through the centers. English as a Second Language (ESL) Institutes for Experienced Teachers were scheduled on a rotating basis; ESL Institutes for scheduled only in outreach areas. The two main components of the OTAN On-Line Communication System were electronic mail and a bulletin board for exchange of information. The provided technical support in research, design, and development of a technology-based adult basic skills program in areas of California where minimal or no apportionment services wo-county area in northern California was selected for the literacy consortium development pilot project. The archiving component was restructured to have two major parts: (1) a y record of State Department of Education-funded projects and other resource materials; and (2) an electronic storage and retrieval system of a wide variety of appropriate and on for adult educators. Information posted online included selected codes and regulations, government documents in hot topic areas, and bibliographies of materials available in Center Libraries. (Exhibits include charts of training sessions, online subscriber profile, forum activities, and resource library usage.) (YLB)

Butler, J. (1991). “Cloze Procedures and Concordances: The Advantages of Discourse Level Authenticity in Testing Expectancy Grammar.” System 19(1-2): 29-38.
Considers how the development of a computer-based microconcordance program could be used to produce cloze tests that do more than present a mutilated text derived from a single example within the context of advanced learners of English-as-a-Second-Language. (CB)

Butler, J. (1990). “Concordancing, Teaching and Error Analysis: Some Applications and a Case Study.” System 18(3): 343-49.
Outlines the practical use of concordance programs for analyzing written text produced in the second-language classroom, suggesting that concordancing of errors from both multi- and ces may provide a new way of analyzing errors and of helping language teachers to help students. (19 references) (Author/CB)

Kowitz, J. and D. J. Carroll (1990). The Use of the Mother Tongue--Precept and Practice. U.S.; District of Columbia: 15.
An introductory textbook in English as a Second Language, commonly used in Egyptian schools, was evaluated for the degree to which its stated principles for classroom use of Arabic instructions given in the lesson notes. A computer concordance program was used to extract relevant passages from the teacher's introduction and the lesson notes. It was found that ce differs from the precepts in the book's introduction in four important ways: (1) Arabic is used frequently, an average of three times per unit; (2) the range of uses of Arabic is son notes than in the introduction; (3) the use of Arabic for the introduction of vocabulary is much more frequent and less systematic than would be expected given the restrictions the instruction notes; and (4) the range of vocabulary items introduced using Arabic goes far beyond that suggested in the introduction. Given the intended use of the book and the audience, it is proposed that the effectiveness and credibility of the textbook are reduced. It is also concluded that the textbook's recommended restrictions on Arabic use are r-stage technique for improving teaching guides in this area is outlined. (MSE)

Murray, D. E. (1988). “Computer-Mediated Communication: Implications for ESP.” English for Special Purposes 7(1): 3-18.
Computer-mediated communication (CmC) refers to interactive computer messages (E-messages), electronic mail (E-mail); forums, and computer conferencing. The use of CmC in business ronments is described in light of (1) the organization of conversation; (2) surface discourse features; (3) choice of medium; and (4) the acquisition of CmC. (Author/LMO)

(1987). SCMLA: Technical Writing. Proceedings (Houston, Texas, October 1987). U.S.; Oklahoma, Oklahoma State Univ. Stillwater.: 39.
In order to make information about technical writing more available, the South Central Modern Language Association (SCMLA) has collected the papers not subject to copyright were presented at the technical writing section of its 1987 meeting. The essays cover a wide range of topics in technical writing pedagogy and research. The articles and their lows: (1) "Spoken into Print: Rhetorical Analyses from a New Medium" (Esther C. Huckaby); (2) "Thinking in Language: The Fourth Protocol" (Anita Ross); (3) "Determining ntation: A Heuristic" (Sam Dragga); (4) "Teaching 'On-Site' Technical Writing Courses" (Sara Brown); and (5) "Teaching Technical Writing to ESL Students" (Gail Nash). (ARH)

Biesenbach-Lucas, S. and D. Weasenforth “E-Mail and Word Processing in the ESL Classroom: How the Medium Affects the Message.” Language Learning & Technology 5(1): 135-65.
Examines whether electronic mail writing will improve academic writing abilities. Nonnative students in an intermediate pre-academic English-as-a-Second-Language course responded to ing electronic mail and word processing. Their writing was examined for differences in uses of cohesive features, length of text produced in each medium, and differences in xtualization. (Author/VWL)

Braunstein, B., C. Meloni, et al. “The U.S.-SiberLink Internet Project.”.
Describes the U.S.-SiberLink Project that linked universities in Santa Barbara, CA, Washington, D.C., and Yakutsk, Siberia. Discusses the project's multimedia Web site and traces project as students in the three cities discuss topics, find research materials, share writing for peer review, and communicate via e-mail and electronic bulletin board.

Holm, A. and et al. English Loan Words in the Speech of Six-Year-Old Navajo Children, with Supplement-Concordance. 1971-08-00, New Mexico Univ. Albuquerque.: 166.
As part of a study of the feasibility and effect of teaching Navajo children to read their own language first, preliminary data on English loan words in the speech of 6-year-old hered in this study of the language of over 200 children. Taped interviews with these children were analyzed, and a spoken word count of all English words used was prepared. The s a discussion of English loan words that the children used and the light these words cast on linguistic acculturation; an appendix lists the English loan words according to semantic part of speech) classification; and a 138-page concordance of loan words, prepared by a computer program, provides an alphabetical listing of all words used by the children and the sentence context in which the words occurred. Related documents are ED 035 484, ED 043 004, ED 043 005, ED 043 413, and ED 048 584. (NQ)

Muller-Hartmann, A. “The Role of Tasks in Promoting Intercultural Learning in Electronic Learning Networks.” Language Learning & Technology 4(2): 129-47.
Examines the role of tasks in promoting intercultural learning in learning networks by looking at research from three e-mail projects between English as a foreign language (EFL) s in Germany, and English and social studies classes in the United States and Canada. Joint reading of literary texts formed the basis for discussion on the networks. (Author/VWL)

Pincas, A. “Reference in Online Discourse.”.
Surveys how a group of students in a recent computer mediated communication (CMC) course attempted to develop referencing conventions to suit their learning purposes, relying quotations (citations) from previous messages. Suggests that success in using referencing correlates with success in a CMC course. (Author/VWL)

Sela, O. “Using E-Mail in the EFL Class.”.
Presents the idea of using electronic mail between classes in different parts of the world. Compares the advantages and disadvantages of using e-mail to those of regular pen-pal ts the author's own experience in using e-mail in the classroom setting. (Author/VWL)