WESTERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS & TECHNOLOGY

Department of Engineering Technology
 
  Knoblauch 135
1 University circle
Macomb, IL 61455-1390


 

 
 

ET 344

COST REDUCTION PRACTICES (3 sh)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

prepared by

Kevin W. Hall




Instructor: Dr. Kevin W. Hall 
E-mail K-Hall@wiu.edu
Web Site: http://faculty.wiu.edu/K-Hall
Office Location: Knoblauch Hall 337
Office Hours: See On-line Schedule
Classroom: Knoblauch Hall 330
Class Meets: TTH 1:00 - 2:15 pm
Course Costs: $10 estimated
Text(s):

Hirano, H. & Black, J. T. (1988). JIT factory revolution: A pictorial guide to factory design of the future. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Productivity Press. (recommended)

Mann, D. (2010). Creating a lean culture: Tools to sustain lean conversions (2nd ed.). New York: Productivity Press. (required)

Productivity Press Development Team. (2003). Identifying waste on the shopfloor. (2003). New York: Productivity Press. (required)

Productivity Press Development Team. (2002). 5S for operators: 5 pillars of the visual workplace. Portland, Oregon: Productivity. (required)

I. Introduction

ET 344 provides a comprehensive study of non-value-added practices, their financial impact, and the techniques/tools used to reduce or eliminate them. Lean Principles are emphasized including the identification of wasteful practices, where waste occurs, consequences of waste, and value. (3 hrs lect.)
II. Prerequisites
Junior standing.
III. Department of Engineering Technology Goals for Student Learning

Engineering Technology (Construction Management, Graphic Communication, Manufacturing Engineering Technology) is a field of study designed to provide students educational programs that allow them to communicate effectively, design and apply technical solutions, use technology effectively, and respond to project management tasks in an environment with continually changing and sophisticated technology in an increasingly competitive global marketplace.
By graduation, Engineering Technology students should be able to:
1. Think critically and creatively;
2. Understand the theoretical principles of the profession;
3. Understand and apply relevant technology in the solution of technical problems;
4. Organize, manage, and maintain projects;
5. Develop an appreciation for ethical and professional practices;
6. Develop and refine oral, written, and visual communication skills; and
7. Demonstrate an overall competency in the program objectives.

IV. Course Objectives

By the end of this course, students should be able to:
1. Evaluate any process and determine value-added practices from non-value-added practices [addresses III.1]
2. Apply lean "flow" principles to a process [addresses III.4]
3. Effectively visually communicate a complex process (flow of materials and information) through mapping techniques [addresses III.6]
4. Engage with an outside organization, observe, and critically evaluate the systems/mechanisms sustaining processes [addresses III.5]
5. Understand the balance between cost, quality, safety, increased productivity, and be able to calculate simple bottom-line returns [addresses III.5]
6. Understand the
financial impact and consequences of waste

V. Course Requirements

A. Reading of Text(s)
Reading of the textbook and other resource material is expected of the student. Specific reading assignments will be given. Students must be prepared for each class meeting and will be held responsible for the material to be covered.

B. Technical Reports/Presentations
Students will be required to complete small writing assignments relating to the course. All work should be typed. Handwritten assignments and assignments that fail to follow the guidelines below WILL NOT receive credit. Each student will generate a presentation on one written topic. Late assignments will be accepted only for PREVIOUSLY excused absences.

Research/Source Guidelines

Research Quality Publications:

Quality publications, to include books and articles, are those that include author names, publication source, and the date published. Articles can be found in educational journals, magazines, or newspapers; some of these may be Internet-based. Internet research may or may not be acceptable for a given assignment. Use of .coms should be limited; information found at company sites should be substantiated by other sources (as in a synthesis). Articles must contain sufficient information to be educational and summarized. NEVER include lecture information provided by the instructor.

In most cases, FIVE or more quality sources should be used for a formal technical report. However, a short critique may be assigned that only requires one source (many times provided to you).

APA Format
Format:

American Psychological Association guidelines can be found on-line (apastyle.org) or at the university library. Any time outside sources and/or quoting are used, proper citing is required.

Paraphrasing: This type of writing is in your own words. You are expressing an important idea that you have read or heard. If this idea is not commonly known (to the general public), you need to credit who and when (the source that idea is found).

According to Kalpakjian and Schmid (2006), smaller grain sizes can result in an increase in the strength of metals.

Grain size can influence the strength of metals; smaller grains can result in increased strength (Kalpakjian and Schmid, 2006).
Using Figures:

Refer to figures in the actual paragraphs. Then label the figure number at the bottom, the title or name of the figure, and place the source in ( ).

According to Kalpakjian and Schmid (2006), smaller grain sizes can result in an increase in the strength of metals. Figure 1 illustrates a Picture of X.


[Picture of X Here]


Figure 1. Picture of X (www.pictureofx.com)

Quoting: This type of writing is the source's own words. You cannot, or unable to express an important idea any better than what you have read or heard. Or, you want to expand on an idea, or punctuate/provide emphasis through using a quote. In this case, you need to credit who, when, and where (the source that idea is found).

According to Kalpakjian and Schmid (2006), “Grain size has a significant effect on the strength of metals; the smaller the size, the stronger the metal” (para. 3).

“Grain size has a significant effect on the strength of metals; the smaller the size, the stronger the metal” (Kalpakjian and Schmid, 2006, p. 61).

Referencing: At the end of the writing, you will have a heading listed "Reference(s)." The following format is typical.

Kalpakjian, S. & Schmid, S. (2001). Manufacturing Engineering Technology. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

1. Technical Reports - Structure Guidelines
Title Page:

The title page ONLY will include student name, topic, date, etc.

Synthesis: Supporting propositions with evidence is important in education and for making informed decisions in the workplace. Students will usually submit a synthesis or a combining of information about a particular topic. This will require multiple sources (from different authors) to support a proposition. When a topic is properly researched, themes will begin to emerge and eventually information will begin to become inbred. At this point, the researcher can conclude that the information has been adequately researched.

Generally a paper will be a minimum length of 2 typed, double-spaced pages - not to exceed 3 pages, 12 point text, Times New Roman font, no more than 1 inch margins. Summaries less than the required length will not be accepted.

Structure your paper. Each paragraph should have one focus; separate ideas go in separate paragraphs. Be sure your paper is not one large paragraph (as the professor commonly sees at the college level). Paper structure should follow the same American 5th Grade paper structure. This generally includes an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs and a reasonable conclusion. Each paragraph should support a particular idea; there must be focus in writing.
Format: American Psychological Association (APA) format is desirable.
Sources: Full photocopies (of any and all) articles/books/sources utilized will be attached to the written report.
2. Short Critiques - Structure Guidelines
Title Page:

Save trees. No title page.

Structure: Generally a short critique will be 1 typed, double-spaced page, 12 point text, Times New Roman font, no more than 1 inch margins. Summaries of MORE or LESS than one page will not be accepted. Name and course # ONLY at top-right of page with source ONLY at bottom of page.

Structure your critique. Each paragraph should have one focus; separate ideas go in separate paragraphs. Be sure your critique is not one large paragraph (as the professor commonly sees at the college level). Structure should follow the same American 5th Grade paper structure. This generally includes an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs and a reasonable conclusion. Each paragraph should support a particular idea; there must be focus in writing.

American Psychological Association (APA) format is desirable.
Source: Full photocopies of the article/chapter/source utilized will be attached to the critique. Occasionally a short critique of a video will be assigned.

General Writing Guidelines
1. Be conceptual: Describe the "WHAT", "WHY" and "HOW" Describe a practice, problem or issue about the selected area, job, or topic of interest. The "WHAT" generally includes background information and descriptions. Coupled with the "WHY", concepts, relationships, interpretations can be drawn out.
2. Use a Dictionary If you don't know what something is or means, use a dictionary. Reading about something and not understanding is of little value.
3. Spell Check Spell check any writing submitted in college-level course work. Work with punctuation errors and spelling errors may cause confusion and is of little value.
4. Avoid Ambiguity Avoid "it, its, this, these, etc.".  Do not use words or variations of words that promote ambiguity in writing. For example, using "IT" forces the reader to refer back to previous documentation and has little value; this also leads to assumptions by the reader.
5. Avoid Possession Be sure writing is technical; do not use pronouns - "my", "we", "our", "I", etc. in writing. Write from a 3rd person point-of-view (outside --> looking in)
6. Avoid Time Elements Do not use "Today", "Last week", "This morning" in your writing. You can place a date to your writing. The other methods of referencing time cause the reader to refer to previous documentation and may have little value.
7. Avoid Parallel Writing Writing a paper while reading the article usually results in plagiarism.
8. Avoid Multiple Quotes If quoting is used, be sure to express the point you are trying to make and use the quote for support. Quotes must be cited. Quotes should be used when there is no better way to express an idea.

Writing Assessment

Quality is to be designed into a product, and this takes time. The above guidelines are part of a methodology to design quality in writing. For technical reports, students are generally allowed multiple attempts to generate a quality product. Normally a report is judged good or bad, or 100% or 0%. If a report does not meet all of the above expectations, then credit is not usually awarded.

For technical reports (not short critiques), students should submit all old drafts and copies of sources with a new draft. If not, the result is no credit.


C. Daily Assignments
Daily assignments will be given. Students are expected to do their own work. The value of daily assignments and/or quizzes are weighted according to the difficulty level. Due dates for assignments will be provided. Assignments are to be saved for future reference. Building on previous assignments is typical in all of my classes.

WEEKS
TENTITIVE TOPICS
1-4
Waste Identification, Lean History/Milestones
5-6
Waste Reduction Practices
7-8
Product Lifecycle - Design/DFMA/Poka Yoke
Ergonomics, Visual Management, Facilities layout, 5S/6S
9-12
Process Time Studies/Operations Analysis
Scheduling/Forecasting/Just-In-Time Practices
Setup Reduction/SMED
Plan&Control/BL ROI
13-16
Pull/Flow Systems/Kanban
Mapping processes, Kaizen/Value Stream Mapping
Lean Management
, Standard Work
Takt, pitch

VI. Method of Evaluation/Assessment

Attendance is a multiplier. Full attendance is required. Only prior approval will justify absences; excused absences require documentation. Unexcused absences will substantially reduce your final grade for the course (just anticipate 3% for each absence). If you are late, this is considered an absence.

Quizzes will likely be given during the term. These are often performance-based.

Three/four exams will likely be given during the term. Exams are TF, MC, and SA.

Final Examination – Final Exams are often given in the form of a Technical Report, but this will depend on end-of-course time/schedule. Any exceptions to the final exam schedule must be approved by department chair and the Dean of the College of Business and Technology in writing including student’s name, ID# and signatures.

Final Exam Day/Time: SEE WIU SCHEDULE

Below is the approximate assigned value to each area assessed:

Attendance as a multiplier
(100%)
Exams
75%
Course Projects, Quizzes/Written Assignments, Daily Activities/Discussions, Tour Analysis or reports
25%


Multiplier Example: A person receives 90% on assignments = 90% (normally an A-)

The person attends 24 of the possible 31 sessions.

This percentage is multiplied by the attendance factor --> 24/31 x 90% = 69.67% (awarded a D+)

The following scale will be used to determine individual assignment, test, and final grades:
93-100%
A
90-92%
A-
87-89%
B+
83-86%
B
80-82%
B-
77-79%
C+
73-76%
C
70-72%
C-
67-69%
D+
63-66%
D
60-62%
D-
59%-below
F+

Rules for Giving an Incomplete (WIU policy) – A temporary symbol of I (Incomplete) for a course may be given only when a student, due to circumstances beyond his or her control, has been unable to complete the course requirements within the official limits of the term. The circumstances must be documented to the instructor’s satisfaction.

VII. Academic Integrity

Preamble

Western Illinois University, like all communities, functions best when its members treat one another with honesty, fairness, respect, and trust. Students have rights and responsibilities (http://www.wiu.edu/provost/students/) and students should realize that deception for individual gain is an offense against the members of the entire community, and it is the student's responsibility to be informed and to abide by all University regulations and policies on Academic Integrity.

Plagiarism, cheating, and other forms of academic dishonesty constitute a serious violation of University conduct regulations. Students who engage in dishonesty in any form shall be charged with academic dishonesty.

It is a duty of faculty members to take measures to preserve and transmit the values of the academic community in the learning environment that they create for their students and in their own academic pursuits. To this end, they are expected to instill in their students a respect for integrity and a desire to behave honestly. They are also expected to take measures to discourage student academic dishonesty, to adjust grades appropriately if academic dishonesty is encountered, and, when warranted, to recommend that additional administrative sanctions be considered. Grading policies are the exclusive prerogative of the faculty; administrative sanctions are under the authority of the Director of Student Judicial Programs. This document provides policies and procedures to be followed when academic dishonesty is encountered.

Definitions of Academic Dishonesty

The following definitions and examples are not meant to be exhaustive. The University reserves the right to determine, in a given instance, what action constitutes a violation of academic integrity. (See www.wiu.edu/policies/acintegrity.php for complete descriptions of the following topics:

1. Plagiarism
2. Fabrication and Falsification
3. Cheating
4. Complicity in Academic Dishonesty
5. Abuse of Academic Materials
6. Multiple Submissions

Reporting Academic Dishonesty

All members of the University community share the responsibility and authority to challenge and make known acts of apparent academic dishonesty. Any student, faculty member, or staff person who has witnessed an apparent act of student academic dishonesty, or has information that reasonably leads to the conclusion that such an act has occurred or has been attempted, has an ethical responsibility for reporting said act(s). Confronting and reporting academic dishonesty can be done in a variety of ways, and people should choose the manner most appropriate for the circumstances. Acts of apparent academic dishonesty that occur in the classroom should be reported directly to the course instructor, and/or the course instructor's Department Chair, and/or the instructor's College Dean. The Council on Admission, Graduation, and Academic Standards (CAGAS) or the Graduate Council will not accept or act upon anonymous reports, but will hold in strict confidence the identity of any person reporting a suspected instance of academic dishonesty, unless that person consents to having his/her identity revealed.

VIII. Access & Disabilities

In accordance with University policy and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), academic accommodations may be made for any student who notifies the instructor of the need for an accommodation. For the instructor to provide the proper accommodation(s) you must obtain documentation of the need for an accommodation through Disability Resource Center (DRC) and provide it to the instructor. It is imperative that you take the initiative to bring such needs to the instructor's attention, as he/she is not legally permitted to inquire about such particular needs of students. Students who may require special assistance in emergency evacuations (i.e. fire, tornado, etc.) should contact the instructor as to the most appropriate procedures to follow in such an emergency. Contact Disability Resource Center (DRC) at 298-2512 for additional services.

If you have emergency medical information to share with me, if you need special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, or if you need accommodations in this course because of a disability, please make an appointment with me as soon as possible. My office location and hours are at the top of this syllabus. If you plan to request disability accommodations, you are expected to register with the DRC at 298-2512.

IX. Resolution of Problems

Should a problem occur, students should speak to their instructor first. If the problem is not resolved, meet with the chair of the department. If the problem continues to be unresolved, go to the College of Business and Technology’s Dean.

Students should observe the following sequence for the resolution of problems: Student --- Instructor --- Chairperson --- Dean

Syllabus subject to change upon notice.