Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction

Source 1 Source 2

1. Gaining attention - Helps students focus on relevant portions of the learning task
2. Informing learner of lesson objective(s) - Tells students what they are about to learn
3. Stimulating recall of prior learning - Help students retrieve memories that are necessary or helpful in achieving new objectives
4. Presenting stimuli with distinctive features - Expose students to information that they will be learning
5. Providing learning guidance - Provide students with clues to help them understand and remember what they are to learn
6. Elicit performance - Gives students an opportunity to demonstrate that they have learned the new information to this point and are ready to proceed to the next part of the lesson
7. Provide feedback - Give students information about the adequacy of their responses in the "elicit performance" event
8. Assessing performance -Assess whether the students have achieved the objectives) of the session or unit
9. Enhance retention and transfer -Allow students to review and extend new so that it is available for subsequent application

In addition, the theory outlines nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes:
(1) gaining attention (reception)
(2) informing learners of the objective (expectancy)
(3) stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
(4) presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
(5) providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
(6) eliciting performance (responding)
(7) providing feedback (reinforcement)
(8) assessing performance (retrieval)
(9) enhancing retention and transfer (generalization).
The following example illustrates a teaching sequence corresponding to the nine instructional events for the objective, Recognize an equilateral triangle:
1. Gain attention - show variety of computer generated triangles
2. Identify objective - pose question: "What is an equilateral triangle?"
3. Recall prior learning - review definitions of triangles
4. Present stimulus - give definition of equilateral triangle
5. Guide learning- show example of how to create equilateral
6. Elicit performance - ask students to create 5 different examples
7. Provide feedback - check all examples as correct/incorrect
8. Assess performance- provide scores and remediation
9. Enhance retention/transfer - show pictures of objects and ask students to identify equilaterals

from 6-2001